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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comparing humoral responses in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees, those with SARS-CoV-2 infection, or combinations of vaccine/infection ('hybrid immunity'), may clarify predictors of vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: We studied 2660 U.S. Military Health System beneficiaries with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection-alone (n = 705), vaccination-alone (n = 932), vaccine-after-infection (n = 869), and vaccine-breakthrough-infection (n = 154). Peak anti-spike-IgG responses through 183 days were compared, with adjustment for vaccine product, demography, and comorbidities. We excluded those with evidence of clinical or sub-clinical SARS-CoV-2 reinfection from all groups. RESULTS: Multivariable regression results indicated vaccine-after-infection anti-spike-IgG responses were higher than infection-alone (p < 0.01), regardless of prior infection severity. An increased time between infection and vaccination was associated with a greater post-vaccination IgG response (p < 0.01). Vaccination-alone elicited a greater IgG response, but more rapid waning of IgG (p < 0.01), compared to infection-alone (p < 0.01). BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccine-receipt was associated with greater IgG responses compared to JNJ-78436735 (p < 0.01), regardless of infection history. Those with vaccine-after-infection or vaccine-breakthrough-infection had a more durable anti-spike-IgG response compared to infection-alone (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-receipt elicited higher anti-spike-IgG responses than infection-alone, although IgG levels waned faster in those vaccinated (compared to infection-alone). Vaccine-after-infection elicits a greater humoral response compared to vaccine or infection alone; and the timing, but not disease severity, of prior infection predicted these post-vaccination IgG responses. While differences between groups were small in magnitude, these results offer insights into vaccine immunogenicity variations that may help inform vaccination timing strategies.

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofab623, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs are the standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. If less invasive alternatives to NP swabs (eg, oropharyngeal [OP] or nasal swabs [NS]) are comparably sensitive, the use of these techniques may be preferable in terms of comfort, convenience, and safety. METHODS: This study compared the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in swab samples collected on the same day among participants with at least one positive PCR test. RESULTS: Overall, 755 participants had at least one set of paired swabs. Concordance between NP and other swab types was 75% (NS), 72% (OP), 54% (rectal swabs [RS]), and 78% (NS/OP combined). Kappa values were moderate for the NS, OP, and NS/OP comparisons (0.50, 0.45, and 0.54, respectively). Highest sensitivity relative to NP (0.87) was observed with a combination of NS/OP tests (positive if either NS or OP was positive). Sensitivity of the non-NP swab types was highest in the first week postsymptom onset and decreased thereafter. Similarly, virus RNA quantity was highest in the NP swabs as compared with NS, OP, and RS within two weeks postsymptom onset. OP and NS performance decreased as virus RNA quantity decreased. No differences were noted between NS specimens collected at home or in clinic. CONCLUSIONS: NP swabs detected more SARS-CoV-2 cases than non-NP swabs, and the sensitivity of the non-NP swabs decreased with time postsymptom onset. While other swabs may be simpler to collect, NP swabs present the best chance of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, which is essential for clinical care as well as genomic surveillance.

4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab556, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated clinical outcomes, functional burden, and complications 1 month after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in a prospective US Military Health System (MHS) cohort of active duty, retiree, and dependent populations using serial patient-reported outcome surveys and electronic medical record (EMR) review. METHODS: MHS beneficiaries presenting at 9 sites across the United States with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test, a COVID-19-like illness, or a high-risk SARS-CoV-2 exposure were eligible for enrollment. Medical history and clinical outcomes were collected through structured interviews and International Classification of Diseases-based EMR review. Risk factors associated with hospitalization were determined by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1202 participants were enrolled. There were 1070 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and 132 SARS-CoV-2-negative participants. In the first month post-symptom onset among the SARS-CoV-2-positive cases, there were 212 hospitalizations, 80% requiring oxygen, 20 ICU admissions, and 10 deaths. Risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization included race (increased for Asian, Black, and Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic White), age (age 45-64 and 65+ compared with <45), and obesity (BMI≥30 compared with BMI<30). Over 2% of survey respondents reported the need for supplemental oxygen, and 31% had not returned to normal daily activities at 1 month post-symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, reporting Asian, Black, or Hispanic race/ethnicity, and obesity are associated with SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization. A proportion of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections require long-term oxygen therapy; the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on short-term functional status was substantial. A significant number of MHS beneficiaries had not yet returned to normal activities by 1 month.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12): 2010-2019, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Characterizing the longevity and quality of cellular immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enhances understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immunity that influences clinical outcomes. Prior studies suggest SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are present in peripheral blood 10 months after infection. Analysis of the function, durability, and diversity of cellular response long after natural infection, over a range of ages and disease phenotypes, is needed to identify preventative and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We identified participants in our multisite longitudinal, prospective cohort study 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection representing a range of disease severity. We investigated function, phenotypes, and frequency of T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 using intracellular cytokine staining and spectral flow cytometry, and compared magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and T cells were detected 12 months postinfection. Severe acute illness was associated with higher frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells and antibodies at 12 months. In contrast, polyfunctional and cytotoxic T cells responsive to SARS-CoV-2 were identified in participants over a wide spectrum of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces polyfunctional memory T cells detectable at 12 months postinfection, with higher frequency noted in those who experienced severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Time Factors
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab517, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The inFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome Plus (FLU-PRO Plus) is a patient-reported outcome data collection instrument assessing symptoms of viral respiratory tract infections across 8 body systems. This study evaluated the measurement properties of FLU-PRO Plus in a study enrolling individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Data from a prospective cohort study (EPICC) in US Military Health System beneficiaries evaluated for COVID-19 was utilized. Adults with symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with FLU-PRO Plus survey information within 1 week of symptom onset were included. Reliability of FLU-PRO Plus was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; 2 days' reproducibility). Known-groups validity was assessed using patient global assessment (PGA) of disease severity. Patient report of return to usual health was used to assess responsiveness (day 1-6/7). RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-six SARS-CoV-2-positive participants were included in the analysis. Reliability among those who reported no change in their symptoms from one day to the next was high for most domains (ICC range, 0.68-0.94 for day 1 to day 2). Construct validity was demonstrated by moderate to high correlation between the PGA rating of disease severity and domain and total scores (eg, total scores correlation: 0.69 [influenza-like illness severity], 0.69 [interference in daily activities], and -0.58 [physical health]). In addition, FLU-PRO Plus demonstrated good known-groups validity, with increasing domain and total scores observed with increasing severity ratings. CONCLUSIONS: FLU-PRO Plus performs well in measuring signs and symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 infection with excellent construct validity, known-groups validity, and responsiveness to change. Standardized data collection instruments facilitate meta-analyses, vaccine effectiveness studies, and other COVID-19 research activities.

8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S24-S25, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564722

ABSTRACT

Background The long-term health effects after SARS-CoV-2 infection remain poorly understood. We evaluated health and healthcare usage after SARS-CoV-2 infection via surveys and longitudinal electronic medical record (EMR) review within the Military Health System (MHS). Methods We studied MHS beneficiaries enrolled in the Epidemiology, Immunology, and Clinical Characteristics of Emerging Infectious Diseases with Pandemic Potential (EPICC) cohort from March to December 2020. COVID-19 illness symptom severity and duration were derived from surveys initiated in late 2020. In addition, multi-year healthcare encounter history before and after onset of COVID-19 symptoms was collected from the MHS EMR. Odds of organ-system clinical diagnoses within the 3 months pre- and post-symptom onset were calculated using generalized linear models, controlling for age, sex, and race, and including participant as a random effect. Results 1,015 participants were included who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, symptomatic, and had 3-month follow-up data available in the EMR (Table 1). 625 of these participants had survey data collected more than 28 days post-symptom onset, among whom 17% and 6% reported persistent symptoms at 28-84 days, and 85+ days, respectively. 9.6% had not resumed normal activities by one month. The most frequently reported symptoms persisting beyond 28 days were dyspnea, loss of smell and/or taste, fatigue, and exercise intolerance (Figure 1A). When compared with the period 61 to 90 days prior to symptom onset, the first month post-symptom onset period was associated with increases of pulmonary (aOR = 57, 95% CI 28-112), renal (aOR = 29, 95% CI 10-84), cardiovascular (aOR = 7, 95% CI 5-11), and neurological diagnoses (aOR = 3, 95% CI 2-4) (Figures 1B and 1C). Cardiovascular disease diagnoses remained elevated through 3 months (aOR = 2, 95% CI 1-3). Table 1. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2+ EPICC participants, and illness duration among those with 28+ days post-symptom onset survey data collection. Figure 1 Fig1A. Symptoms reported by EPICC participants with illnesses longer than 28 days;1B. Percent of participants with organ system specific diagnoses on each day, 90 days pre- and post-symptom onset;1C. Odds of organ system specific diagnoses within each month, +/- 3 months of symptom onset, were calculated using generalized linear models, controlling for age, sex, and race and included participants as a random effect. Odds shown are relative to the earliest period included in the model, 61-90 days before onset. Conclusion In this MHS cohort, a significant proportion of participants had persistent symptoms and cardiovascular disease diagnoses 3 months after COVID-19 illness onset. These findings emphasize the long-term morbidity of COVID-19 and the importance of mitigating SARS-CoV-2 infections. Further analyses will evaluate demographic, clinical, and biomarker predictors of medium-to-long term organ-specific post-acute sequelae. Disclosures Simon Pollett, MBBS, Astra Zeneca (Other Financial or Material Support, HJF, in support of USU IDCRP, funded under a CRADA to augment the conduct of an unrelated Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial sponsored by AstraZeneca as part of USG response (unrelated work)) Ryan C. Maves, MD, EMD Serono (Advisor or Review Panel member)Heron Therapeutics (Advisor or Review Panel member) David A. Lindholm, MD, American Board of Internal Medicine (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Member of Auxiliary R&D Infectious Disease Item-Writer Task Force. No financial support received. No exam questions will be disclosed ., Other Financial or Material Support

9.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1462-1472, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity remain unclear. After verifying that obesity was a correlate of severe COVID-19 in US Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries, we compared immunological and virological phenotypes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in both obese and nonobese participants. METHODS: COVID-19-infected MHS beneficiaries were enrolled, and anthropometric, clinical, and demographic data were collected. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 peak IgG humoral response and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction viral load in obese and nonobese patients, stratified by hospitalization, utilizing logistic regression models. RESULTS: Data from 511 COVID-19 patients were analyzed, among whom 24% were obese and 14% severely obese. Obesity was independently associated with hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.18) and need for oxygen therapy (aOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.61-7.11). In outpatients, severely obese had a log10 (1.89) higher nucleocapsid (N1) genome equivalents (GE)/reaction and log10 (2.62) higher N2 GE/reaction than nonobese (P = 0.03 and P < .001, respectively). We noted a correlation between body mass index and peak anti-spike protein IgG in inpatients and outpatients (coefficient = 5.48, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is a strong correlate of COVID-19 severity in MHS beneficiaries. These findings offer new pathophysiological insights into the relationship between obesity and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , Body Weight , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Military Health Services , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Young Adult
10.
Res Sq ; 2020 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955189

ABSTRACT

Sensitive and specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays remain critical for community and hospital-based SARS-CoV-2 surveillance. Here, we developed and applied a multiplex microsphere-based immunoassay (MMIA) for COVD-19 antibody studies that incorporates spike protein trimers of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and the seasonal human betacoronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, that enables measurement of off-target pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies. The MMIA performances characteristics are: 98% sensitive and 100% specific for human subject samples collected as early as 10 days from symptom onset. The MMIA permitted the simultaneous identification of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion and the induction of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody cross reactions to SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. Further, synchronous increases of HCoV-OC43 IgG antibody levels was detected with SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in a subset of subjects for whom early infection sera were available prior to their SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion, suggestive of an HCoV-OC43 memory response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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