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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 803742, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581314

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients are considered high-risk and prioritized for vaccination against COVID-19. We aimed to analyze B-cell subsets in these patients to identify potential predictors of humoral vaccination response. Patients (n=120) suffering from hematologic malignancies or other causes of immunodeficiency and healthy controls (n=79) received a full vaccination series with an mRNA vaccine. B-cell subsets were analyzed prior to vaccination. Two independent anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or trimeric S protein (TSP) were performed three to four weeks after the second vaccination. Seroconversion occurred in 100% of healthy controls, in contrast to 67% (RBD) and 82% (TSP) of immunocompromised patients, while only 32% (RBD) and 22% (TSP) achieved antibody levels comparable to those of healthy controls. The number of circulating CD19+IgD+CD27- naïve B cells was strongly associated with antibody levels (ρ=0.761, P<0.001) and the only independent predictor for achieving antibody levels comparable to healthy controls (OR 1.07 per 10-µL increase, 95%CI 1.02-1.12, P=0.009). Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified a cut-off at ≥61 naïve B cells per µl to discriminate between patients with and without an optimal antibody response. Consequently, measuring of naïve B cells in immunocompromised hematologic patients could be useful in predicting their humoral vaccination response.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
2.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295946

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Immunocompromised patients are considered high-risk and prioritized for vaccination against COVID-19. We aimed to analyze B-cell subsets in these patients to identify potential predictors of humoral vaccination response. Patients (n=120) suffering from hematologic malignancies or other causes of immunodeficiency and healthy controls (n=79) received a full vaccination series with an mRNA vaccine. B-cell subsets were analyzed prior to vaccination. Two independent anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or trimeric S protein (TSP) were performed three to four weeks after the second vaccination. Seroconversion occurred in 100% of healthy controls, in contrast to 67% (RBD) and 82% (TSP) of immunocompromised patients, while only 32% (RBD) and 22% (TSP) achieved antibody levels comparable to those of healthy controls. The number of circulating CD19 + IgD + CD27 - naïve B cells was strongly associated with antibody levels (ρ=0.761, P<0.001) and the only independent predictor for achieving antibody levels comparable to healthy controls (OR 1.07 per 10-µl increase, 95%CI 1.02–1.12, P=0.009). Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified a cut-off at ≥61 naïve B cells per µl to discriminate between patients with and without an optimal antibody response. Consequently, measuring naïve B cells in immunocompromised hematologic patients could be useful in predicting their humoral vaccination response.

3.
Mult Scler ; 27(14): 2209-2218, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) and the impact of disease-modifying treatment (DMT) is limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate degree, duration and potential predictors of specific humoral immune response in pwMS with prior COVID-19. METHODS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing was performed in pwMS with PCR-confirmed diagnosis of symptomatic COVID-19 from a nation-wide registry. Predictors of seropositivity were identified by multivariate regression models. RESULTS: In 125 pwMS (mean age = 42.4 years (SD = 12.3 years), 70% female), anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 76.0% after a median of 5.2 months from positive PCR. Seropositivity rate was significantly lower in patients on IS-DMT (61.4%, p = 0.001) than without DMT or immunomodulatory DMT (80.6%; 86.0%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, IS-DMT was associated with reduced probability of seropositivity (odds ratio (OR): 0.51; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.17-0.82; p < 0.001). Predefined subgroup analyses showed marked reduction of seropositivity in pwMS on rituximab/ocrelizumab (OR 0.15; 95% CI: 0.05-0.56; p < 0.001). Rate of seropositivity did not change significantly over 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Humoral immunity is stable after SARS-CoV-2 infection in MS, but is reduced by immunosuppressive DMT, particularly anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. This provides important evidence for advising pwMS as well as for planning and prioritizing vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Austria , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic challenges neurologists in counselling patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) regarding their risk by SARS-CoV-2 and in guiding disease-modifying treatment (DMT). OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence and outcome of COVID-19 in pwMS specifically associated with different DMT in a nationwide population-based study. METHODS: We included patients aged ≥18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of MS and a diagnosis of COVID-19 established between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020. We classified COVID-19 course as either mild, severe or fatal. Impact of DMT and specifically immunosuppressants (alemtuzumab, cladribine, fingolimod, ocrelizumab or rituximab) on COVID-19 outcome was determined by multivariable models, adjusted for a-priori-risk. RESULTS: Of 126 MS patients with COVID-19 (mean age 43.2 years [SD 13.4], 71% female), 86.5% had a mild course, 9.5% a severe course and 3.2% died from COVID-19. A-priori-risk significantly predicted COVID-19 severity (R2 0.814; p<0.001) and mortality (R2 0.664; p<0.001). Adjusting for this a-priori-risk, neither exposure to any DMT nor exposure to specific immunosuppressive DMT were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity (odds ratio [OR] 1.6; p = 0.667 and OR 1.9; p = 0.426) or mortality (OR 0.5; p = 0.711 and 2.1; 0.233) when compared to no DMT. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based MS cohort, COVID-19 outcome was not associated with exposure to DMT and immunosuppressive DMT when accounting for other already known risk factors. This provides reassuring evidence that COVID-19 risk can be individually anticipated in MS and-except for a very small proportion of high-risk patients-treatment decisions should be primarily focused on treating MS rather than the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Immunotherapy , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Pandemics , Registries , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Young Adult
5.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3584-3588, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103445

ABSTRACT

We investigated hospital admission rates for the entire spectrum of acute cerebrovascular diseases and of recanalization treatments for ischaemic stroke (IS) in the Austrian federal state of Styria during and also after the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wave. We retrospectively identified all patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA), IS and non-traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (ICH; including intracerebral, subdural and subarachnoid bleeding types) admitted to one of the 11 public hospitals in Styria (covering > 95% of inhospital cerebrovascular events in this region). Information was extracted from the electronic medical documentation network connecting all public Styrian hospitals. We analysed two periods of interest: (1) three peak months of the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020), and (2) three recovery months thereafter (June-August 2020), compared to respective periods 4 years prior (2016-2019) using Poisson regression. In the three peak months of the first COVID-19 wave, there was an overall decline in hospital admissions for acute cerebrovascular diseases (RR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.89, p < 0.001), which was significant for TIA (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.72, p < 0.001) and ICH (0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.91, p = 0.02), but not for IS (RR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1, p = 0.08). Thrombolysis and thrombectomy numbers were not different compared to respective months 4 years prior. In the recovery period after the first COVID-19 wave, TIA (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.71-0.96, p = 0.011) and ICH (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.99, p = 0.045) hospitalizations remained lower, while the frequency of IS and recanalization treatments was unchanged. In this state-wide analysis covering all types of acute cerebrovascular diseases, hospital admissions for TIA and ICH were reduced during and also after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, but hospitalizations and recanalization treatments for IS were not affected in these two periods.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Stroke , Austria/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
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