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1.
J Pediatr ; 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the time to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity after the first positive RT-PCR test, factors associated with longer time to RT-PCR negativity, proportion of children seroconverting after proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and factors associated with the lack of seroconversion. STUDY DESIGN: The Epidemiological Study of Coronavirus in Children of the Spanish Society of Pediatrics is a multicenter study conducted in Spanish children to assess the characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019. In a subset of patients, 3 serial RT-PCR tests on nasopharyngeal swab specimens were performed after the first RT-PCR test, and immunoglobulin G serology for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies was performed in the acute and follow-up (<14 and ≥14 days after diagnosis) phase. RESULTS: In total, 324 patients were included in the study. The median time to RT-PCR negativity was 17 days (IQR, 8-29 days), and 35% of patients remained positive more than 4 weeks after the first RT-PCR test. The probability of RT-PCR negativity did not differ across groups defined by sex, disease severity, immunosuppressive drugs, or clinical phenotype. Globally, 24% of children failed to seroconvert after infection. Seroconversion was associated with hospitalization, persistence of RT-PCR positivity, and days of fever. CONCLUSIONS: Time to RT-PCR negativity was long, regardless of the severity of symptoms or other patient features. This finding should be considered when interpreting RT-PCR results in a child with symptoms, especially those with mild symptoms. Seroprevalence and postimmunization studies should consider that 11 in 4 infected children fail to seroconvert.

2.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504861

ABSTRACT

We aimed to identify the spectrum of disease in children with COVID-19, and the risk factors for admission in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). We conducted a multicentre, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 76 Spanish hospitals. We included children with COVID-19 or multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) younger than 18 years old, attended during the first year of the pandemic. We enrolled 1200 children. A total of 666 (55.5%) were hospitalised, and 123 (18.4%) required admission to PICU. Most frequent major clinical syndromes in the cohort were mild syndrome (including upper respiratory tract infection and flu-like syndrome, skin or mucosae problems and asymptomatic), 44.8%; bronchopulmonary syndrome (including pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma flare), 18.5%; fever without a source, 16.2%; MIS-C, 10.6%; and gastrointestinal syndrome, 10%. In hospitalised children, the proportions were 28.5%, 25.7%, 16.5%, 19.1% and 10.2%, respectively. Risk factors associated with PICU admission were age in months (OR: 1.007; 95% CI 1.004 to 1.01), MIS-C (OR: 14.4, 95% CI 8.9 to 23.8), chronic cardiac disease (OR: 4.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 13), asthma or recurrent wheezing (OR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.2) and after excluding MIS-C patients, moderate/severe liver disease (OR: 8.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 47.6). However, asthmatic children were admitted into the PICU due to MIS-C or pneumonia, not due to asthma flare.Conclusion: Hospitalised children with COVID-19 usually present as one of five major clinical phenotypes of decreasing severity. Risk factors for PICU include MIS-C, elevation of inflammation biomarkers, asthma, moderate or severe liver disease and cardiac disease. What is Known: • All studies suggest that children are less susceptible to serious SARS-CoV-2 infection when compared to adults. Most studies describe symptoms at presentation. However, it remains unclear how these symptoms group together into clinically identifiable syndromes and the severity associated with them. What is New: • We have gathered the primary diagnoses into five major syndromes of decreasing severity: MIS-C, bronchopulmonary syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome, fever without a source and mild syndrome. Classification of the children in one of the syndromes is unique and helps to assess the risk of critical illness and to define the spectrum of the disease instead of just describing symptoms and signs.

3.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Endemic coronaviruses have been found in acute bronchiolitis, mainly as a coinfecting virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for respiratory illness in hospitalized children. The characteristics of patients with bronchiolitis have not been extensively described. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients with bronchiolitis and SARS-CoV-2 infection enrolled in a prospective multicenter cohort of children hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain from March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021. RESULTS: Twelve of 666 children infected with SARS-CoV-2 who required hospital admission met the diagnostic criteria for bronchiolitis (1.8%). Median age was 1.9 months (range: 0.4-10.1). Six cases had household contact with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 case. Main complaints were cough (11 patients), rhinorrhea (10), difficulty breathing (8), and fever (8). Eleven cases were classified as mild or moderate and one as severe. Laboratory tests performed in seven patients did not evidence anemia, lymphopenia, or high C-reactive protein levels. Chest X-rays were performed in six children, and one case showed remarkable findings. Coinfection with metapneumovirus was detected in the patient with the most severe course; Bordetella pertussis was detected in another patient. Seven patients required oxygen therapy. Albuterol was administered in four patients. One patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Median length of admission was 4 days (range: 3-14). No patient died or showed any sequelae at discharge. Two patients developed recurrent bronchospasms. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection does not seem to be a main trigger of severe bronchiolitis, and children with this condition should be managed according to clinical practice guidelines.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): e397-e401, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387751

ABSTRACT

Some clusters of children with a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. We describe the epidemiological and clinical features of children with MIS-C in Spain. MIS-C is a potentially severe condition that presents in children with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(8): e287-e293, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify risk factors causing critical disease in hospitalized children with COVID-19 and to build a predictive model to anticipate the probability of need for critical care. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 52 Spanish hospitals. The primary outcome was the need for critical care. We used a multivariable Bayesian model to estimate the probability of needing critical care. RESULTS: The study enrolled 350 children from March 12, 2020, to July 1, 2020: 292 (83.4%) and 214 (73.7%) were considered to have relevant COVID-19, of whom 24.2% required critical care. Four major clinical syndromes of decreasing severity were identified: multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) (17.3%), bronchopulmonary (51.4%), gastrointestinal (11.6%), and mild syndrome (19.6%). Main risk factors were high C-reactive protein and creatinine concentration, lymphopenia, low platelets, anemia, tachycardia, age, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and low oxygen saturation. These risk factors increased the risk of critical disease depending on the syndrome: the more severe the syndrome, the more risk the factors conferred. Based on our findings, we developed an online risk prediction tool (https://rserver.h12o.es/pediatria/EPICOAPP/, username: user, password: 0000). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for severe COVID-19 include inflammation, cytopenia, age, comorbidities, and organ dysfunction. The more severe the syndrome, the more the risk factor increases the risk of critical illness. Risk of severe disease can be predicted with a Bayesian model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
7.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(7): 2099-2106, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092067

ABSTRACT

Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a frequent cause of consultation at the emergency department, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to those infants. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics and rates of bacterial coinfections of infants < 90 days with FWS as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of infants under 90 days of age with FWS and positive SARS-CoV2 PCR in nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate, attended at the emergency departments of 49 Spanish hospitals (EPICO-AEP cohort) from March 1 to June 26, 2020. Three hundred and thirty-three children with COVID-19 were included in EPICO-AEP. A total of 67/336 (20%) were infants less than 90 days old, and 27/67(40%) presented with FWS. Blood cultures were performed in 24/27(89%) and were negative in all but one (4%) who presented a Streptococcus mitis bacteremia. Urine culture was performed in 26/27(97%) children and was negative in all, except in two (7%) patients. Lumbar puncture was performed in 6/27(22%) cases, with no growth of bacteria. Two children had bacterial coinfections: 1 had UTI and bacteremia, and 1 had UTI. C-reactive was protein over 20 mg/L in two children (one with bacterial coinfection), and procalcitonin was normal in all. One child was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of apnea episodes. No patients died.Conclusion: FWS was frequent in infants under 90 days of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standardized markers to rule out bacterial infections remain useful in this population, and the outcome is generally good. What is Known: • Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a common cause of consultation at the emergency department, and young infants have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections (SBI). • The emergence of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to young infants with FWS in the emergency department. management of those children is a challenge because information about bacterial coinfection and prognosis is scarce. What is New: • SARS-CoV-2 infection should be ruled out in young infants (< 90 days of age) with FWS in areas with community transmission. • Bacterial coinfection rarely coexists in those infants. • Inflammatory markers were not increased in children without bacterial coinfection. • Outcome is good in most patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , RNA, Viral
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(3): e115-e117, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075651

ABSTRACT

In utero transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is a point of debate. We report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vertical transmission from asymptomatic mother, with molecular detection in mother's blood at delivery and neonatal nasopharyngeal swabs at 5 and 28 hours of life and later IgG seroconversion. The newborn was asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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