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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(3): 1-9, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305357

ABSTRACT

The pathogens that cause most emerging infectious diseases in humans originate in animals, particularly wildlife, and then spill over into humans. The accelerating frequency with which humans and domestic animals encounter wildlife because of activities such as land-use change, animal husbandry, and markets and trade in live wildlife has created growing opportunities for pathogen spillover. The risk of pathogen spillover and early disease spread among domestic animals and humans, however, can be reduced by stopping the clearing and degradation of tropical and subtropical forests, improving health and economic security of communities living in emerging infectious disease hotspots, enhancing biosecurity in animal husbandry, shutting down or strictly regulating wildlife markets and trade, and expanding pathogen surveillance. We summarize expert opinions on how to implement these goals to prevent outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Zoonoses , Animals , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Pandemics , Animals, Wild , Animals, Domestic , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
2.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052884

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the world largely unprepared, including scientific and policy communities. On April 10-13, 2022, researchers across academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations met at the Keystone symposium "Lessons from the Pandemic: Responding to Emerging Zoonotic Viral Diseases" to discuss the successes and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic and what lessons can be applied moving forward. Speakers focused on experiences not only from the COVID-19 pandemic but also from outbreaks of other pathogens, including the Ebola virus, Lassa virus, and Nipah virus. A general consensus was that investments made during the COVID-19 pandemic in infrastructure, collaborations, laboratory and manufacturing capacity, diagnostics, clinical trial networks, and regulatory enhancements-notably, in low-to-middle income countries-must be maintained and strengthened to enable quick, concerted responses to future threats, especially to zoonotic pathogens.

3.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234835

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had devastating health and socio-economic impacts. Human activities, especially at the wildlife interphase, are at the core of forces driving the emergence of new viral agents. Global surveillance activities have identified bats as the natural hosts of diverse coronaviruses, with other domestic and wildlife animal species possibly acting as intermediate or spillover hosts. The African continent is confronted by several factors that challenge prevention and response to novel disease emergences, such as high species diversity, inadequate health systems, and drastic social and ecosystem changes. We reviewed published animal coronavirus surveillance studies conducted in Africa, specifically summarizing surveillance approaches, species numbers tested, and findings. Far more surveillance has been initiated among bat populations than other wildlife and domestic animals, with nearly 26,000 bat individuals tested. Though coronaviruses have been identified from approximately 7% of the total bats tested, surveillance among other animals identified coronaviruses in less than 1%. In addition to a large undescribed diversity, sequences related to four of the seven human coronaviruses have been reported from African bats. The review highlights research gaps and the disparity in surveillance efforts between different animal groups (particularly potential spillover hosts) and concludes with proposed strategies for improved future biosurveillance.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Africa/epidemiology , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Ecosystem , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5626, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132100

ABSTRACT

Mitigating the risk of acquiring coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 requires awareness of the survival of virus on high-touch environmental surfaces (HITES) and skin, and frequent use of targeted microbicides with demonstrated efficacy. The data on stability of infectious SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces and in suspension have been put into perspective, as these inform the need for hygiene. We evaluated the efficacies of formulated microbicidal actives against alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The coronaviruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, human coronavirus 229E, murine hepatitis virus-1, or MERS-CoV were deposited on prototypic HITES or spiked into liquid matrices along with organic soil loads. Alcohol-, quaternary ammonium compound-, hydrochloric acid-, organic acid-, p-chloro-m-xylenol-, and sodium hypochlorite-based microbicidal formulations were evaluated per ASTM International and EN standard methodologies. All evaluated formulated microbicides inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses in suspension or on prototypic HITES. Virucidal efficacies (≥ 3 to ≥ 6 log10 reduction) were displayed within 30 s to 5 min. The virucidal efficacy of a variety of commercially available formulated microbicides against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses was confirmed. These microbicides should be useful for targeted surface and hand hygiene and disinfection of liquids, as part of infection prevention and control for SARS-CoV-2 and emerging mutational variants, and other emerging enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Anti-Infective Agents , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Half-Life , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Swine
5.
Ecohealth ; 17(3): 406-418, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938583

ABSTRACT

The legal and illegal trade in wildlife for food, medicine and other products is a globally significant threat to biodiversity that is also responsible for the emergence of pathogens that threaten human and livestock health and our global economy. Trade in wildlife likely played a role in the origin of COVID-19, and viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been identified in bats and pangolins, both traded widely. To investigate the possible role of pangolins as a source of potential zoonoses, we collected throat and rectal swabs from 334 Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) confiscated in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah between August 2009 and March 2019. Total nucleic acid was extracted for viral molecular screening using conventional PCR protocols used to routinely identify known and novel viruses in extensive prior sampling (> 50,000 mammals). No sample yielded a positive PCR result for any of the targeted viral families-Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae. In the light of recent reports of coronaviruses including a SARS-CoV-2-related virus in Sunda pangolins in China, the lack of any coronavirus detection in our 'upstream' market chain samples suggests that these detections in 'downstream' animals more plausibly reflect exposure to infected humans, wildlife or other animals within the wildlife trade network. While confirmatory serologic studies are needed, it is likely that Sunda pangolins are incidental hosts of coronaviruses. Our findings further support the importance of ending the trade in wildlife globally.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Pangolins/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Malaysia , Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008758, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742547

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the substantial public health, economic, and societal consequences of virus spillover from a wildlife reservoir. Widespread human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also presents a new set of challenges when considering viral spillover from people to naïve wildlife and other animal populations. The establishment of new wildlife reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2 would further complicate public health control measures and could lead to wildlife health and conservation impacts. Given the likely bat origin of SARS-CoV-2 and related beta-coronaviruses (ß-CoVs), free-ranging bats are a key group of concern for spillover from humans back to wildlife. Here, we review the diversity and natural host range of ß-CoVs in bats and examine the risk of humans inadvertently infecting free-ranging bats with SARS-CoV-2. Our review of the global distribution and host range of ß-CoV evolutionary lineages suggests that 40+ species of temperate-zone North American bats could be immunologically naïve and susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2. We highlight an urgent need to proactively connect the wellbeing of human and wildlife health during the current pandemic and to implement new tools to continue wildlife research while avoiding potentially severe health and conservation impacts of SARS-CoV-2 "spilling back" into free-ranging bat populations.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Host Specificity/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4235, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738373

ABSTRACT

Bats are presumed reservoirs of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) including progenitors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. However, the evolution and diversification of these coronaviruses remains poorly understood. Here we use a Bayesian statistical framework and a large sequence data set from bat-CoVs (including 630 novel CoV sequences) in China to study their macroevolution, cross-species transmission and dispersal. We find that host-switching occurs more frequently and across more distantly related host taxa in alpha- than beta-CoVs, and is more highly constrained by phylogenetic distance for beta-CoVs. We show that inter-family and -genus switching is most common in Rhinolophidae and the genus Rhinolophus. Our analyses identify the host taxa and geographic regions that define hotspots of CoV evolutionary diversity in China that could help target bat-CoV discovery for proactive zoonotic disease surveillance. Finally, we present a phylogenetic analysis suggesting a likely origin for SARS-CoV-2 in Rhinolophus spp. bats.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biodiversity , COVID-19 , China , Chiroptera/classification , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/virology
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