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Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 36(12): e9282, 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802571


RATIONALE: A derivatization switchable solvent liquid-liquid microextraction quadruple isotope dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (D-SS-LLME-ID4 -GC/MS) method is presented for the determination of hydroxychloroquine sulfate in human biofluids. METHODS: While mixing type/period and concentration of NaOH were optimized via a univariate optimization approach, a multivariate optimization approach was used to determine optimum values for relatively more important parameters such as volumes of derivatization agent (acetic anhydride), NaOH and switchable solvent. RESULTS: Under the optimum experimental conditions, limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated as 0.03 and 0.09 mg/kg (mass based), respectively. An isotopically labelled material (hydroxychloroquine methyl acetate-d3 ) was firstly synthesized to be used in ID4 experiments which give highly accurate and precise recovery results. After the application of D-SS-LLME-ID4 , superior percent recovery results were recorded as 99.9 ± 1.6-101.3 ± 1.2 for human serum, 99.9 ± 1.7-99.8 ± 1.8 for urine and 99.6 ± 1.5-101.0 ± 1.1 for saliva samples. CONCLUSIONS: The developed D-SS-LLME-ID4 -GC/MS method compensates the complicated matrix effects of human biofluids and provides highly accurate quantification of an analyte with precise results.

Liquid Phase Microextraction , Acetates , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Isotopes , Limit of Detection , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Sodium Hydroxide , Solvents/chemistry
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 113: 107130, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475116


In the present study, a novel analytical method for the determination of hydroxychloroquine sulfate in human serum and urine samples was established. One step derivatization and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for quantitative determination of hydroxychloroquine sulfate in aqueous samples. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate was first hydrolyzed and converted to its benzoate derivative by adding benzoyl chloride in chloroform which also served as extraction solvent. Significant parameters such as type/volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, concentration/volume of sodium hydroxide, type/period of mixing and concentration of derivatizing agent were carefully optimized by one variable at a time approach. Under the optimum DLLME conditions, limit of detection (LOD), quantitation (LOQ) and dynamic range were calculated as 35.2, 117.2 and 96-1980 µg/kg (ppb), respectively. Recovery studies were conducted by spiked human serum and urine samples and the results were ranged between 93 and 107% with low standard deviations. Developed method can be easily used in hydroxychloroquine sulfate based SARS-CoV-2 and malaria treatment studies.

COVID-19 , Liquid Phase Microextraction , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 108: 106949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045104


A vortex assisted spraying based fine droplet formation liquid phase microextraction (VA-SFDF-LPME) method was developed to determine chloroquine phosphate at trace levels in human serum, urine and saliva samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with single quadrupole mass analyzer. In the first part, several liquid phase microextraction (LPME) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) methods were compared to each other in order to observe their extraction ability for the analyte. VA-SFDF-LPME method was selected as an efficient and easy extraction method due to its higher extraction efficiency. Optimization studies were carried out for the parameters such as extraction solvent type, sodium hydroxide volume/concentration, sample volume, spraying number and mixing type/period. Tukey's method based on post hoc test was applied to all experimental data for the selection of optimum values. Optimum extraction parameters were found to be 12 mL initial sample volume, two sprays of dichloromethane, 0.75 mL of 60 g/kg sodium hydroxide and 15 s vortex. Under the optimum conditions, limit of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were calculated as 2.8 and 9.2 µg/kg, respectively. Detection power of the GC-MS system was increased by approximately 317 folds with the developed extraction/preconcentration method. The applicability and accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by spiking experiments and percent recovery results for human urine, serum and saliva samples were found in the range of 90.9% and 114.0% with low standard deviation values (1.9-9.4).

Chloroquine , Liquid Phase Microextraction , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Saliva
J Pharm Anal ; 11(3): 278-283, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056958


A rapid, accurate, and sensitive analytical method, ultrasonication-assisted spraying based fine droplet formation-liquid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (UA-SFDF-LPME-GC-MS), was proposed for the determination of trace amounts of hydroxychloroquine sulfate in human serum, urine, and saliva samples. To determine the best extraction strategy, several liquid and solid phase extraction methods were investigated for their efficiencies in isolation and preconcentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate from biological matrices. The UA-SFDF-LPME method was determined to be the best extraction method as it was operationally simple and provided accurate results. Variables such as the extraction solvent, spraying number, sodium hydroxide concentration and volume, sample volume, mixing method, and mixing period were optimized for the proposed method using the one-variable-at-a-time approach. In addition, Tukey's method based on a post hoc comparison test was employed to evaluate the significant difference between the parameters inspected. After the optimization studies, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined to be 0.7 and 2.4 µg/kg, respectively. The sensitivity of the GC-MS system based on the LOD was enhanced approximately 440-fold when the UA-SFDF-LPME method was employed. Spiking experiments were also conducted for the human serum, urine, and saliva samples to determine the applicability and accuracy of the proposed method. Recoveries for the human serum, urine, and saliva samples were found to be in the ranges of 93.9%-101.7%, 95.2%-105.0%, and 93.1%-102.3%, respectively. These results were satisfactory and indicated that the hydroxychloroquine sulfate level in the above biological samples could be analyzed using the proposed method.