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1.
Ann Clin Biochem ; : 45632221134687, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify arterial blood gas (ABG) abnormalities, with a focus on a high anion gap (AG) metabolic acidosis and evaluate outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the ICU. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Cape Town during the first and second COVID-19 waves. Age, gender, sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), bicarbonate (HCO3std), pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), lactate levels and ABG results were obtained. The Pearson χ2 test or Fisher exact test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to compare mortality and survival. To identify factors associated with non-survival, a multivariable model was developed. RESULTS: This study included 465 patients, 226 (48%) of whom were female. The sample population's median (IQR) age was 54.2 (46.1-61.3) years, and 63% of the patients died. ABG analyses found that 283 (61%) of the 465 patients had alkalosis (pH ≥ 7.45), 65 (14%) had acidosis (pH ≤ 7.35) and 117 (25%) had normal pH (7.35-7.45). In the group with alkalosis, 199 (70.3%) had a metabolic alkalosis and in the group with acidosis, 42 (64%) had a metabolic acidosis with an increased AG of more than 17. Non-survivors were older than survivors (56.4 years versus 50.3 years, p < .001). CONCLUSION: Most of the COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU had an alkalosis, and those with acidosis had a much worse prognosis. Higher AG metabolic acidosis was not associated with patients' characteristics.

2.
IJID Reg ; 3: 242-247, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768189

ABSTRACT

Background: The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Africa was caused by the Beta variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirurus-2. This study aimed to explore clinical and biochemical parameters that could predict outcome in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A prospective study was conducted between 5 November 2020 and 30 April 2021 among patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital. The Cox proportional hazards model in Stata 16 was used to assess risk factors associated with survival or death. Factors with P<0.05 were considered significant. Results: Patients who died were found to have significantly lower median pH (P<0.001), higher median arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P<0.001), higher D-dimer levels (P=0.001), higher troponin T levels (P=0.001), higher N-terminal-prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide levels (P=0.007) and higher C-reactive protein levels (P=0.010) compared with patients who survived. Increased standard bicarbonate (HCO3std) was associated with lower risk of death (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.93-0.99). Conclusions: The mortality of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU was associated with elevated D-dimer and a low HCO3std level. Large studies are warranted to increase the identification of patients at risk of poor prognosis, and to improve the clinical approach.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324952

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on biochemical markers and their association with mortality rates observed in patients with severe COVID-19 disease admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in sub-Saharan Africa are scanty. We performed an evaluation of baseline routine biochemical parameters as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. Methods: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively on patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the adult ICU in a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, between October 2020 and February 2021. Robust Poisson regression methods and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to explore the association of biochemical parameters with severity and mortality. Results: A total of 82 patients [(median age 53.8 years (IQR: 46.4-59.7)] were enrolled, of whom 27 (33%) were male. The median duration of ICU stay was 10 days (IQR: 5-14);54/82 (66% CFR) patients died. Baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (aRR: 1.002, 95%CI: 1.0004-1.004;P = 0.016) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTProBNP) (aRR: 1.0004, 95%CI: 1.0001-1.0007;P = 0.014) were both independent risk factors of a poor prognosis with optimal cut-off values of 449.5 U/L (sensitivity: 1;specificity: 0.43) and 551 pg/mL (sensitivity: 0.49;specificity: 0.86), respectively. Conclusion: LDH and NTProBNP appear to be promising predictors of COVID-19 poor prognosis in the ICU. Larger sample size studies are required to confirm the validity of this combination of biomarkers.

4.
IJID Reg ; 2: 191-197, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639444

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on biochemical markers and their association with mortality rates in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. An evaluation of baseline routine biochemical parameters was performed in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU, in order to identify prognostic biomarkers. Methods: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected prospectively from patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the adult ICU of a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, between October 2020 and February 2021. Robust Poisson regression methods and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to explore the association of biochemical parameters with severity and mortality. Results: A total of 82 patients (median age 53.8 years, interquartile range 46.4-59.7 years) were enrolled, of whom 55 (67%) were female and 27 (33%) were male. The median duration of ICU stay was 10 days (interquartile range 5-14 days); 54/82 patients died (66% case fatality rate). Baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (adjusted relative risk 1.002, 95% confidence interval 1.0004-1.004; P = 0.016) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (adjusted relative risk 1.0004, 95% confidence interval 1.0001-1.0007; P = 0.014) were both found to be independent risk factors of a poor prognosis, with optimal cut-off values of 449.5 U/l (sensitivity 100%, specificity 43%) and 551 pg/ml (sensitivity 49%, specificity 86%), respectively. Conclusions: LDH and NT-proBNP appear to be promising predictors of a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients in the ICU. Studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm the validity of this combination of biomarkers.

5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(9): 1507-1515, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206212

ABSTRACT

With an almost unremittent progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections all around the world, there is a compelling need to introduce rapid, reliable, and high-throughput testing to allow appropriate clinical management and/or timely isolation of infected individuals. Although nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) remains the gold standard for detecting and theoretically quantifying SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in various specimen types, antigen assays may be considered a suitable alternative, under specific circumstances. Rapid antigen tests are meant to detect viral antigen proteins in biological specimens (e.g. nasal, nasopharyngeal, saliva), to indicate current SARS-CoV-2 infection. The available assay methodology includes rapid chromatographic immunoassays, used at the point-of-care, which carries some advantages and drawbacks compared to more conventional, instrumentation-based, laboratory immunoassays. Therefore, this document by the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Taskforce on COVID-19 aims to summarize available data on the performance of currently available SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid detection tests (Ag-RDTs), providing interim guidance on clinical indications and target populations, assay selection, and evaluation, test interpretation and limitations, as well as on pre-analytical considerations. This document is hence mainly aimed to assist laboratory and regulated health professionals in selecting, validating, and implementing regulatory approved Ag-RDTs.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/standards , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Asymptomatic Infections/classification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans
6.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(12): 2009-2016, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835982

ABSTRACT

Routine biochemical and hematological tests have been reported to be useful in the stratification and prognostication of pediatric and adult patients with diagnosed coronavirus disease (COVID-19), correlating with poor outcomes such as the need for mechanical ventilation or intensive care, progression to multisystem organ failure, and/or death. While these tests are already well established in most clinical laboratories, there is still debate regarding their clinical value in the management of COVID-19, particularly in pediatrics, as well as the value of composite clinical risk scores in COVID-19 prognostication. This document by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Task Force on COVID-19 provides interim guidance on: (A) clinical indications for testing, (B) recommendations for test selection and interpretation, (C) considerations in test interpretation, and (D) current limitations of biochemical/hematological monitoring of COVID-19 patients. These evidence-based recommendations will provide practical guidance to clinical laboratories worldwide, underscoring the contribution of biochemical and hematological testing to our collective pandemic response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Hematologic Tests , International Agencies , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Child , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
7.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(12): 2001-2008, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835981

ABSTRACT

Serological testing for the detection of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is emerging as an important component of the clinical management of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as the epidemiological assessment of SARS-CoV-2 exposure worldwide. In addition to molecular testing for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical laboratories have also needed to increase testing capacity to include serological evaluation of patients with suspected or known COVID-19. While regulatory approved serological immunoassays are now widely available from diagnostic manufacturers globally, there is significant debate regarding the clinical utility of these tests, as well as their clinical and analytical performance requirements prior to application. This document by the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Taskforce on COVID-19 provides interim guidance on: (A) clinical indications and target populations, (B) assay selection, (C) assay evaluation, and (D) test interpretation and limitations for serological testing of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. These evidence-based recommendations will provide practical guidance to clinical laboratories in the selection, verification, and implementation of serological assays and are of the utmost importance as we expand our pandemic response from initial case tracing and containment to mitigation strategies to minimize resurgence and further morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , International Agencies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Serologic Tests/methods , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(12): 1993-2000, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835980

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection globally has relied extensively on molecular testing, contributing vitally to case identification, isolation, contact tracing, and rationalization of infection control measures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Clinical laboratories have thus needed to verify newly developed molecular tests and increase testing capacity at an unprecedented rate. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose a global health threat, laboratories continue to encounter challenges in the selection, verification, and interpretation of these tests. This document by the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Task Force on COVID-19 provides interim guidance on: (A) clinical indications and target populations, (B) assay selection, (C) assay verification, and (D) test interpretation and limitations for molecular testing of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These evidence-based recommendations will provide practical guidance to clinical laboratories worldwide and highlight the continued importance of laboratory medicine in our collective pandemic response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , International Agencies , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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