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1.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10626, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974701

ABSTRACT

Alloimmune responses in kidney transplant (KT) patients previously hospitalized with COVID-19 are understudied. We analyzed a cohort of 112 kidney transplant recipients who were hospitalized following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result during the first 20 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found a cumulative incidence of 17% for the development of new donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or increased levels of pre-existing DSA in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected KT patients. This risk extended 8 months post-infection. These changes in DSA status were associated with late allograft dysfunction. Risk factors for new or increased DSA responses in this KT patient cohort included the presence of circulating DSA pre-COVID-19 diagnosis and time post-transplantation. COVID-19 vaccination prior to infection and remdesivir administration during infection were each associated with decreased likelihood of developing a new or increased DSA response. These data show that new or enhanced DSA responses frequently occur among KT patients requiring admission with COVID-19 and suggest that surveillance, vaccination, and antiviral therapies may be important tools to prevent alloimmunity in these individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection , HLA Antigens , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
2.
Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation ; 35, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970584

ABSTRACT

Alloimmune responses in kidney transplant (KT) patients previously hospitalized with COVID-19 are understudied. We analyzed a cohort of 112 kidney transplant recipients who were hospitalized following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result during the first 20 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found a cumulative incidence of 17% for the development of new donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or increased levels of pre-existing DSA in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected KT patients. This risk extended 8 months post-infection. These changes in DSA status were associated with late allograft dysfunction. Risk factors for new or increased DSA responses in this KT patient cohort included the presence of circulating DSA pre-COVID-19 diagnosis and time post-transplantation. COVID-19 vaccination prior to infection and remdesivir administration during infection were each associated with decreased likelihood of developing a new or increased DSA response. These data show that new or enhanced DSA responses frequently occur among KT patients requiring admission with COVID-19 and suggest that surveillance, vaccination, and antiviral therapies may be important tools to prevent alloimmunity in these individuals. GRAPHICAL

3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010691, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951570

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) marks the third novel ß-coronavirus to cause significant human mortality in the last two decades. Although vaccines are available, too few have been administered worldwide to keep the virus in check and to prevent mutations leading to immune escape. To determine if antibodies could be identified with universal coronavirus activity, plasma from convalescent subjects was screened for IgG against a stabilized pre-fusion SARS-CoV-2 spike S2 domain, which is highly conserved between human ß-coronavirus. From these subjects, several S2-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) were developed that neutralized SARS-CoV-2 with recognition of all variants of concern (VoC) tested (Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Omicron). The hmAb 1249A8 emerged as the most potent and broad hmAb, able to recognize all human ß-coronavirus and neutralize SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. 1249A8 demonstrated significant prophylactic activity in K18 hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 lineage A and lineage B Beta, and Omicron VoC. 1249A8 delivered as a single 4 mg/kg intranasal (i.n.) dose to hamsters 12 hours following infection with SARS-CoV-2 Delta protected them from weight loss, with therapeutic activity further enhanced when combined with 1213H7, an S1-specific neutralizing hmAb. As little as 2 mg/kg of 1249A8 i.n. dose 12 hours following infection with SARS-CoV Urbani strain, protected hamsters from weight loss and significantly reduced upper and lower respiratory viral burden. These results indicate in vivo cooperativity between S1 and S2 specific neutralizing hmAbs and that potent universal coronavirus neutralizing mAbs with therapeutic potential can be induced in humans and can guide universal coronavirus vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
4.
Kidney360 ; 3(1): 28-36, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776874

ABSTRACT

Background: AKI is a common sequela of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and contributes to the severity and mortality from COVID-19. Here, we tested the hypothesis that kidney alterations induced by COVID-19-associated AKI could be detected in cells collected from urine. Methods: We performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) on cells recovered from the urine of eight hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with (n=5) or without AKI (n=3) as well as four patients with non-COVID-19 AKI (n=4) to assess differences in cellular composition and gene expression during AKI. Results: Analysis of 30,076 cells revealed a diverse array of cell types, most of which were kidney, urothelial, and immune cells. Pathway analysis of tubular cells from patients with AKI showed enrichment of transcripts associated with damage-related pathways compared with those without AKI. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression was highest in urothelial cells among cell types recovered. Notably, in one patient, we detected SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in urothelial cells. These same cells were enriched for transcripts associated with antiviral and anti-inflammatory pathways. Conclusions: We successfully performed scRNAseq on urinary sediment from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 to noninvasively study cellular alterations associated with AKI and established a dataset that includes both injured and uninjured kidney cells. Additionally, we provide preliminary evidence of direct infection of urinary bladder cells by SARS-CoV-2. The urinary sediment contains a wealth of information and is a useful resource for studying the pathophysiology and cellular alterations that occur in kidney diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Kidney , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
5.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(12): 3002-3013, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549765

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in COVID-19 and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated alterations in the urine metabolome to test the hypothesis that impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis and other deficiencies in energy metabolism in the kidney, previously characterized in ischemic, toxic, and inflammatory etiologies of AKI, will be present in COVID-19-associated AKI. METHODS: This is a case-control study among the following 2 independent populations of adults hospitalized with COVID-19: a critically ill population in Boston, Massachusetts, and a general population in Birmingham, Alabama. The cases had AKI stages 2 or 3 by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; the controls had no AKI. Metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 14 cases and 14 controls were included from Boston and 8 cases and 10 controls from Birmingham. Increased urinary quinolinate-to-tryptophan ratio (Q/T), found with impaired NAD+ biosynthesis, was present in the cases at each location and pooled across locations (median [interquartile range]: 1.34 [0.59-2.96] in cases, 0.31 [0.13-1.63] in controls, P = 0.0013). Altered energy metabolism and purine metabolism contributed to a distinct urinary metabolomic signature that differentiated patients with and without AKI (supervised random forest class error: 2 of 28 in Boston, 0 of 18 in Birmingham). CONCLUSION: Urinary metabolites spanning multiple biochemical pathways differentiate AKI versus non-AKI in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and suggest a conserved impairment in NAD+ biosynthesis, which may present a novel therapeutic target to mitigate COVID-19-associated AKI.

6.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(3): 100218, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101541

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection results in viral burden in the respiratory tract, enabling transmission and leading to substantial lung pathology. The 1212C2 fully human monoclonal antibody was derived from an IgM memory B cell of a COVID-19 patient, has high affinity for the Spike protein receptor binding domain, neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, and exhibits in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic activity in hamsters when delivered intraperitoneally, reducing upper and lower respiratory viral burden and lung pathology. Inhalation of nebulized 1212C2 at levels as low as 0.6 mg/kg, corresponding to 0.03 mg/kg lung-deposited dose, reduced the viral burden below the detection limit and mitigated lung pathology. The therapeutic efficacy of an exceedingly low dose of inhaled 1212C2 supports the rationale for local lung delivery for dose-sparing benefits, as compared to the conventional parenteral route of administration. These results suggest that the clinical development of 1212C2 formulated and delivered via inhalation for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection should be considered.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/classification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , /metabolism , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Phylogeny , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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