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1.
Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation ; 35, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970584

ABSTRACT

Alloimmune responses in kidney transplant (KT) patients previously hospitalized with COVID-19 are understudied. We analyzed a cohort of 112 kidney transplant recipients who were hospitalized following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result during the first 20 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found a cumulative incidence of 17% for the development of new donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or increased levels of pre-existing DSA in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected KT patients. This risk extended 8 months post-infection. These changes in DSA status were associated with late allograft dysfunction. Risk factors for new or increased DSA responses in this KT patient cohort included the presence of circulating DSA pre-COVID-19 diagnosis and time post-transplantation. COVID-19 vaccination prior to infection and remdesivir administration during infection were each associated with decreased likelihood of developing a new or increased DSA response. These data show that new or enhanced DSA responses frequently occur among KT patients requiring admission with COVID-19 and suggest that surveillance, vaccination, and antiviral therapies may be important tools to prevent alloimmunity in these individuals. GRAPHICAL

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010691, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951570

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) marks the third novel ß-coronavirus to cause significant human mortality in the last two decades. Although vaccines are available, too few have been administered worldwide to keep the virus in check and to prevent mutations leading to immune escape. To determine if antibodies could be identified with universal coronavirus activity, plasma from convalescent subjects was screened for IgG against a stabilized pre-fusion SARS-CoV-2 spike S2 domain, which is highly conserved between human ß-coronavirus. From these subjects, several S2-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) were developed that neutralized SARS-CoV-2 with recognition of all variants of concern (VoC) tested (Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Omicron). The hmAb 1249A8 emerged as the most potent and broad hmAb, able to recognize all human ß-coronavirus and neutralize SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. 1249A8 demonstrated significant prophylactic activity in K18 hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 lineage A and lineage B Beta, and Omicron VoC. 1249A8 delivered as a single 4 mg/kg intranasal (i.n.) dose to hamsters 12 hours following infection with SARS-CoV-2 Delta protected them from weight loss, with therapeutic activity further enhanced when combined with 1213H7, an S1-specific neutralizing hmAb. As little as 2 mg/kg of 1249A8 i.n. dose 12 hours following infection with SARS-CoV Urbani strain, protected hamsters from weight loss and significantly reduced upper and lower respiratory viral burden. These results indicate in vivo cooperativity between S1 and S2 specific neutralizing hmAbs and that potent universal coronavirus neutralizing mAbs with therapeutic potential can be induced in humans and can guide universal coronavirus vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib and dexamethasone have randomised trials supporting their use for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. We assessed the combination of baricitinib plus remdesivir versus dexamethasone plus remdesivir in preventing progression to mechanical ventilation or death in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, double placebo-controlled trial, patients were enrolled at 67 trial sites in the USA (60 sites), South Korea (two sites), Mexico (two sites), Singapore (two sites), and Japan (one site). Hospitalised adults (≥18 years) with COVID-19 who required supplemental oxygen administered by low-flow (≤15 L/min), high-flow (>15 L/min), or non-invasive mechanical ventilation modalities who met the study eligibility criteria (male or non-pregnant female adults ≥18 years old with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection) were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either baricitinib, remdesivir, and placebo, or dexamethasone, remdesivir, and placebo using a permuted block design. Randomisation was stratified by study site and baseline ordinal score at enrolment. All patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (or matching oral placebo) for a maximum of 14 days or dexamethasone (or matching intravenous placebo) for a maximum of 10 days. The primary outcome was the difference in mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 between the two treatment groups in the modified intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the as-treated population, comprising all participants who received one dose of the study drug. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04640168. FINDINGS: Between Dec 1, 2020, and April 13, 2021, 1047 patients were assessed for eligibility. 1010 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned, 516 (51%) to baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo and 494 (49%) to dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo. The mean age of the patients was 58·3 years (SD 14·0) and 590 (58%) of 1010 patients were male. 588 (58%) of 1010 patients were White, 188 (19%) were Black, 70 (7%) were Asian, and 18 (2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native. 347 (34%) of 1010 patients were Hispanic or Latino. Mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 was similar between the study groups (Kaplan-Meier estimates of 87·0% [95% CI 83·7 to 89·6] in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 87·6% [84·2 to 90·3] in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group; risk difference 0·6 [95% CI -3·6 to 4·8]; p=0·91). The odds ratio for improved status in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group compared with the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group was 1·01 (95% CI 0·80 to 1·27). At least one adverse event occurred in 149 (30%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 179 (37%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·5% [1·6 to 13·3]; p=0·014). 21 (4%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group had at least one treatment-related adverse event versus 49 (10%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 6·0% [2·8 to 9·3]; p=0·00041). Severe or life-threatening grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 143 (28%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 174 (36%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·7% [1·8 to 13·4]; p=0·012). INTERPRETATION: In hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen by low-flow, high-flow, or non-invasive ventilation, baricitinib plus remdesivir and dexamethasone plus remdesivir resulted in similar mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29, but dexamethasone was associated with significantly more adverse events, treatment-related adverse events, and severe or life-threatening adverse events. A more individually tailored choice of immunomodulation now appears possible, where side-effect profile, ease of administration, cost, and patient comorbidities can all be considered. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

4.
Kidney360 ; 3(1): 28-36, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776874

ABSTRACT

Background: AKI is a common sequela of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and contributes to the severity and mortality from COVID-19. Here, we tested the hypothesis that kidney alterations induced by COVID-19-associated AKI could be detected in cells collected from urine. Methods: We performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) on cells recovered from the urine of eight hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with (n=5) or without AKI (n=3) as well as four patients with non-COVID-19 AKI (n=4) to assess differences in cellular composition and gene expression during AKI. Results: Analysis of 30,076 cells revealed a diverse array of cell types, most of which were kidney, urothelial, and immune cells. Pathway analysis of tubular cells from patients with AKI showed enrichment of transcripts associated with damage-related pathways compared with those without AKI. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression was highest in urothelial cells among cell types recovered. Notably, in one patient, we detected SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in urothelial cells. These same cells were enriched for transcripts associated with antiviral and anti-inflammatory pathways. Conclusions: We successfully performed scRNAseq on urinary sediment from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 to noninvasively study cellular alterations associated with AKI and established a dataset that includes both injured and uninjured kidney cells. Additionally, we provide preliminary evidence of direct infection of urinary bladder cells by SARS-CoV-2. The urinary sediment contains a wealth of information and is a useful resource for studying the pathophysiology and cellular alterations that occur in kidney diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Kidney , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329676

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) marks the third novel β-coronavirus to cause significant human mortality in the last two decades. Although vaccines are available, too few have been administered worldwide to keep the virus in check and to prevent mutations leading to immune escape. To determine if antibodies could be identified with universal coronavirus activity, plasma from convalescent subjects was screened for IgG against a stabilized pre-fusion SARS-CoV-2 spike S2 domain, which is highly conserved between human β-coronavirus. From these subjects, several S2-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) were developed that neutralized SARS-CoV-2 with recognition of all variants of concern (VoC) tested (Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Omicron). The hmAb 1249A8 emerged as the most potent and broad hmAb, able to recognize all human β-coronavirus and neutralize SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. 1249A8 demonstrated significant prophylactic activity in K18 hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 lineage A and lineage B Beta, and Omicron VoC. 1249A8 delivered as a single 4 mg/kg intranasal (i.n.) dose to hamsters 12 hours following infection with SARS-CoV-2 Delta protected them from weight loss, with therapeutic activity further enhanced when combined with 1213H7, an S1-specific neutralizing hmAb. As little as 2 mg/kg of 1249A8 i.n. dose 12 hours following infection with SARS-CoV Urbani strain, protected hamsters from weight loss and significantly reduced upper and lower respiratory viral burden. These results indicate in vivo cooperativity between S1 and S2 specific neutralizing hmAbs and that potent universal coronavirus neutralizing mAbs with therapeutic potential can be induced in humans and can guide universal coronavirus vaccine development.

6.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(12): 3002-3013, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549765

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in COVID-19 and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated alterations in the urine metabolome to test the hypothesis that impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis and other deficiencies in energy metabolism in the kidney, previously characterized in ischemic, toxic, and inflammatory etiologies of AKI, will be present in COVID-19-associated AKI. METHODS: This is a case-control study among the following 2 independent populations of adults hospitalized with COVID-19: a critically ill population in Boston, Massachusetts, and a general population in Birmingham, Alabama. The cases had AKI stages 2 or 3 by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; the controls had no AKI. Metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 14 cases and 14 controls were included from Boston and 8 cases and 10 controls from Birmingham. Increased urinary quinolinate-to-tryptophan ratio (Q/T), found with impaired NAD+ biosynthesis, was present in the cases at each location and pooled across locations (median [interquartile range]: 1.34 [0.59-2.96] in cases, 0.31 [0.13-1.63] in controls, P = 0.0013). Altered energy metabolism and purine metabolism contributed to a distinct urinary metabolomic signature that differentiated patients with and without AKI (supervised random forest class error: 2 of 28 in Boston, 0 of 18 in Birmingham). CONCLUSION: Urinary metabolites spanning multiple biochemical pathways differentiate AKI versus non-AKI in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and suggest a conserved impairment in NAD+ biosynthesis, which may present a novel therapeutic target to mitigate COVID-19-associated AKI.

7.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(12): 3002-3013, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in COVID-19 and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated alterations in the urine metabolome to test the hypothesis that impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis and other deficiencies in energy metabolism in the kidney, previously characterized in ischemic, toxic, and inflammatory etiologies of AKI, will be present in COVID-19-associated AKI. METHODS: This is a case-control study among the following 2 independent populations of adults hospitalized with COVID-19: a critically ill population in Boston, Massachusetts, and a general population in Birmingham, Alabama. The cases had AKI stages 2 or 3 by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; the controls had no AKI. Metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 14 cases and 14 controls were included from Boston and 8 cases and 10 controls from Birmingham. Increased urinary quinolinate-to-tryptophan ratio (Q/T), found with impaired NAD+ biosynthesis, was present in the cases at each location and pooled across locations (median [interquartile range]: 1.34 [0.59-2.96] in cases, 0.31 [0.13-1.63] in controls, P = 0.0013). Altered energy metabolism and purine metabolism contributed to a distinct urinary metabolomic signature that differentiated patients with and without AKI (supervised random forest class error: 2 of 28 in Boston, 0 of 18 in Birmingham). CONCLUSION: Urinary metabolites spanning multiple biochemical pathways differentiate AKI versus non-AKI in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and suggest a conserved impairment in NAD+ biosynthesis, which may present a novel therapeutic target to mitigate COVID-19-associated AKI.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1365-1376, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Functional impairment of interferon, a natural antiviral component of the immune system, is associated with the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19. We aimed to compare the efficacy of interferon beta-1a in combination with remdesivir compared with remdesivir alone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at 63 hospitals across five countries (Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, and the USA). Eligible patients were hospitalised adults (aged ≥18 years) with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as confirmed by a positive RT-PCR test, and who met one of the following criteria suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection: the presence of radiographic infiltrates on imaging, a peripheral oxygen saturation on room air of 94% or less, or requiring supplemental oxygen. Patients were excluded if they had either an alanine aminotransferase or an aspartate aminotransferase concentration more than five times the upper limit of normal; had impaired renal function; were allergic to the study product; were pregnant or breast feeding; were already on mechanical ventilation; or were anticipating discharge from the hospital or transfer to another hospital within 72 h of enrolment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous remdesivir as a 200 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by a 100 mg maintenance dose administered daily for up to 9 days and up to four doses of either 44 µg interferon beta-1a (interferon beta-1a group plus remdesivir group) or placebo (placebo plus remdesivir group) administered subcutaneously every other day. Randomisation was stratified by study site and disease severity at enrolment. Patients, investigators, and site staff were masked to interferon beta-1a and placebo treatment; remdesivir treatment was given to all patients without masking. The primary outcome was time to recovery, defined as the first day that a patient attained a category 1, 2, or 3 score on the eight-category ordinal scale within 28 days, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all randomised patients who were classified according to actual clinical severity. Safety was assessed in the as-treated population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of the assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04492475. FINDINGS: Between Aug 5, 2020, and Nov 11, 2020, 969 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group (n=487) or to the placebo plus remdesivir group (n=482). The mean duration of symptoms before enrolment was 8·7 days (SD 4·4) in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group and 8·5 days (SD 4·3) days in the placebo plus remdesivir group. Patients in both groups had a time to recovery of 5 days (95% CI not estimable) (rate ratio of interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group vs placebo plus remdesivir 0·99 [95% CI 0·87-1·13]; p=0·88). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of mortality at 28 days was 5% (95% CI 3-7%) in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group and 3% (2-6%) in the placebo plus remdesivir group (hazard ratio 1·33 [95% CI 0·69-2·55]; p=0·39). Patients who did not require high-flow oxygen at baseline were more likely to have at least one related adverse event in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group (33 [7%] of 442 patients) than in the placebo plus remdesivir group (15 [3%] of 435). In patients who required high-flow oxygen at baseline, 24 (69%) of 35 had an adverse event and 21 (60%) had a serious adverse event in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group compared with 13 (39%) of 33 who had an adverse event and eight (24%) who had a serious adverse event in the placebo plus remdesivir group. INTERPRETATION: Interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir was not superior to remdesivir alone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients who required high-flow oxygen at baseline had worse outcomes after treatment with interferon beta-1a compared with those given placebo. FUNDING: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (USA).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Treatment Outcome , United States
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2454-2458, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435936

ABSTRACT

Not all persons recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection develop SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We show that nonseroconversion is associated with younger age and higher reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold values and identify SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in the nasopharynx as a major correlate of the systemic antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2454-2458, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291007

ABSTRACT

Not all persons recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection develop SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We show that nonseroconversion is associated with younger age and higher reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold values and identify SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in the nasopharynx as a major correlate of the systemic antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
11.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(3): 100218, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101541

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection results in viral burden in the respiratory tract, enabling transmission and leading to substantial lung pathology. The 1212C2 fully human monoclonal antibody was derived from an IgM memory B cell of a COVID-19 patient, has high affinity for the Spike protein receptor binding domain, neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, and exhibits in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic activity in hamsters when delivered intraperitoneally, reducing upper and lower respiratory viral burden and lung pathology. Inhalation of nebulized 1212C2 at levels as low as 0.6 mg/kg, corresponding to 0.03 mg/kg lung-deposited dose, reduced the viral burden below the detection limit and mitigated lung pathology. The therapeutic efficacy of an exceedingly low dose of inhaled 1212C2 supports the rationale for local lung delivery for dose-sparing benefits, as compared to the conventional parenteral route of administration. These results suggest that the clinical development of 1212C2 formulated and delivered via inhalation for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection should be considered.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/classification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , /metabolism , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Phylogeny , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
N Engl J Med ; 384(9): 795-807, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with dysregulated inflammation. The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, plus remdesivir are not known. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating baricitinib plus remdesivir in hospitalized adults with Covid-19. All the patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (≤14 days) or placebo (control). The primary outcome was the time to recovery. The key secondary outcome was clinical status at day 15. RESULTS: A total of 1033 patients underwent randomization (with 515 assigned to combination treatment and 518 to control). Patients receiving baricitinib had a median time to recovery of 7 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 8), as compared with 8 days (95% CI, 7 to 9) with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P = 0.03), and a 30% higher odds of improvement in clinical status at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6). Patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination treatment and 18 days with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.08). The 28-day mortality was 5.1% in the combination group and 7.8% in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.09). Serious adverse events were less frequent in the combination group than in the control group (16.0% vs. 21.0%; difference, -5.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.8 to -0.3; P = 0.03), as were new infections (5.9% vs. 11.2%; difference, -5.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -1.9; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time and accelerating improvement in clinical status among patients with Covid-19, notably among those receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation. The combination was associated with fewer serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04401579.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
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