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1.
Microb Pathog ; 172: 105792, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS) is an organic and viable herbal supplement that could improve the function of the immune system. The present study aims to determine the effect of NBS on disease severity and laboratory biomarkers in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This current study was a randomized, comparative, parallel two-arm and single-blind clinical trial study performed in Tehran, Iran. In total, 70 patients with COVID-19 were included in the present study and assigned to two groups including 1) intervention group (n = 35) and 2) control group (n = 35). All patients included in the intervention group received 4.5 gr daily rate of NBS superfood, three times the daily rate of 1.5 gr for 14 days. In contrast, patients included in the control group received a placebo three times a day for 14 days. The measurement of laboratory parameters including CRP, ESR, D-Dimer, LDH, CPK, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, FBG, WBC count, PLT, and lymphocyte count was performed using standard kits and methods. Moreover, all serum samples were tested to determine the levels of IL-6 and TNF-ɑ using specific commercially available ELISA kits according to the instructions of the manufacturer. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the mean serum level of several variables including CRP (p < 0.001), ESR (p < 0.001), D- Dimer (p = 0.001), LDH (p < 0.001), SGOT (p = 0.002), SGPT (p = 0.019), ALP (p < 0.001), WBC count (p < 0.001), body temperature (p = 0.013), IL-6 (p < 0.001), and TNF-α (p < 0.001) was seen 14 days after intervention from baseline in the intervention group than control group. In contrast, in the intervention group, the significant increase from baseline of lymphocyte percentage (p < 0.001) and oxygen saturation (p < 0.001) was seen 14 days after receiving NBS superfood than the control group. CONCLUSION: Results showed that the use of NBS superfood had various beneficial effects on COVID-19 disease severity. These results suggest that NBS superfood can be used as an effective natural supplement in the treatment process of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Alanine Transaminase , Interleukin-6 , Iran , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(8): e24566, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the significant role of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in inducing severe infectious diseases, identifying serotypes and genotypes that can mediate antimicrobial resistance has become a pillar of treatment strategies. This study aims to determine the correlation between the minimum inhibitory concentration of antimicrobial agents and amino acid mutations in penicillin-binding proteins. Moreover, molecular serotyping and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing were first-ever performed to characterize the invasive penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates in Iran. METHODS: Of 149 isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed against penicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime by the MIC Test Strip, and sequence analysis of the pbp genes was performed through PCR-sequencing method. All penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates were serotyped and genotyped by sequential multiplex PCR and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Among pneumococcal isolates, 53 isolates were classified as penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae, of which 38 (71.7%) and 15 (28.3%) were resistant and intermediate to penicillin, respectively. Furthermore, ceftriaxone- and cefotaxime-nonsusceptible pneumococci constituted 33 (62.2%) and 29 cases (54.7%), respectively. Of note, there were 8 and 41 different serotypes and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis types, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents, the most efficient approach to preventing pneumococcal infection mortality as vaccine-preventable diseases is focusing on wide-spectrum vaccination. Based on our findings, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could considerably reduce the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases due to the high rate of serotype coverage.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cefotaxime/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
3.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782570

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the clinical manifestations of the virus have undergone many changes. Recently, there have been many reports on gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 patients. This study is aimed to perform a detailed phylogenetic study and assessment of different SNVs in the RNA genome of viruses isolated from fecal samples of patients with COVID-19 who have gastrointestinal symptoms, which can help better understand viral pathogenesis. In the present study, 20 fecal samples were collected by written consent from COVID-19 patients. According to the manufacturer's protocol, virus nucleic acid was extracted from stool samples and the SARS-CoV-2 genome presence in stool samples was confirmed by RT-PCR assay. Three viral genes, S, nsp12, and nsp2, were amplified using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method and specific primers. Multiple sequencing alignment (MSA) was performed in the CLC word bench, and a phylogenetic tree was generated by MEGA X based on the neighbor-joining method. Of all cases, 11 (55%) were males. The mean age of the patients was 33.6 years. Diabetes (70%) and blood pressure (55%) were the most prevalent comorbidities. All 20 patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in respiratory samples. Molecular analysis investigation among 20 stool samples revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 genome was found among 10 stool samples; only three samples were used for sequencing. The polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis in SARS-CoV-2 showed great similarity among all of the evaluated genes with the Wuhan reference sequence and all of the current variants of concern (VOCs). The current study represents a great similarity in polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 isolates with the Wuhan reference sequence and all of the current VOC in the particular evaluated partial sequences of S, nsp12, and nsp2.

4.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(2): 498-507, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to analyze the clinical features and laboratory profiles and risk factors associated with critical illness of children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Iranian pediatric patients were recruited through a collaborative research network between March and May 2020. Demographics, clinical, laboratory, and radiological results were obtained from patient files. RESULTS: Of 166 patients, 102 (61%) and 64 (39%) were males and females, respectively. Ninety-six (57.8%) and 70 (42.2%), had moderate and severe conditions, respectively. Thirty (18%) of patients died. The common symptoms were fever (73%), cough (54%), and shortness of breath, headache decrease in neutrophil and platelet counts; increase values in lactate dehydrogenase, decrease in the blood pH and HCO3 were significantly associated with the disease severity. 54% and 56% of patients showed abnormal radiographic appearance in Chest X-ray and in chest computed tomography scan, respectively. Sixty-one (36.7%) of patients were referred to intensive care unit (ICU). The coexistence of comorbidity was the main factor associated with ICU admission, shock, arrhythmia, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury, and death. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a higher than previously recognized rate of COVID-19 mortality in Iranian pediatric patients. Epidemiological factors, such as the relatively high case fatality rate in the country and the presence of underlying diseases were the main factors for the high death rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Laboratories , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Microbiol ; 2021: 5528786, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, a novel coronavirus found in 2019 known as SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Various parameters including clinical manifestations and molecular evaluation can affect the accuracy of diagnosis. This review aims to discuss the various clinical symptoms and molecular evaluation results in COVID-19 patients, to point out the importance of onset symptoms, type, and timing of the sampling, besides the methods that are used for detection of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A systematic literature review of current articles in the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline. RESULTS: Of the 12946 patients evaluated in this investigation, 7643 were confirmed to be COVID-19 positive by molecular techniques, particularly the RT-PCR/qPCR combined technique (qRT-PCR). In most of the studies, all of the enrolled cases had 100% positive results for molecular evaluation. Among the COVID-19 patients who were identified as such by positive PCR results, most of them showed fever or cough as the primary clinical signs. Less common symptoms observed in clinically confirmed cases were hemoptysis, bloody sputum, mental disorders, and nasal congestion. The most common clinical samples for PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients were obtained from throat, oropharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal swabs, while tears and conjunctival secretions seem to be the least common clinical samples for COVID-19 diagnosis among studies. Also, different conserved SARS-CoV-2 gene sequences could be targeted for qRT-PCR detection. The suggested molecular assay being used by most laboratories for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 is qRT-PCR. CONCLUSION: There is a worldwide concern on the COVID-19 pandemic and a lack of well-managed global control. Hence, it is crucial to update the molecular diagnostics protocols for handling the situation. This is possible by understanding the available advances in assays for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Good sampling procedure and using samples with enough viral loads, also considering the onset symptoms, may reduce the qRT-PCR false-negative results in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Selection of the most efficient primer-probe for target genes and samples containing enough viral loads to search for the existence of SARS-CoV-2 helps detecting the virus on time using qRT-PCR.

6.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(3): 351-361, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067453

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 27 million confirmed cases and 8,90,000 deaths all around the world. Verity of viral infections can infect the nervous system; these viral infections can present a wide range of manifestation. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the COVID-19 associated central nervous system manifestations, mental and neurological symptoms. For that we conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of four online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. All relevant articles that reported psychiatric/psychological symptoms or disorders in COVID-19 without considering time and language restrictions were assessed. All the study procedures were performed based on the PRISMA criteria. Due to the screening, 14 studies were included. The current study result indicated that, the pooled prevalence of CNS or mental associated disorders with 95% CI was 50.68% (6.68-93.88). The most prevalence symptoms were hyposmia/anosmia/olfactory dysfunction (number of study: 10) with 36.20% (14.99-60.51). Only one study reported numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia. Pooled prevalence of numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia was 5.83% (2.17-12.25) and 2.39% (10.75-14.22). The pooled prevalence of depression and anxiety was 3.52% (2.62-4.54) and 13.92% (9.44-19.08). Our findings demonstrate that COVID-19 has a certain relation with neurological symptoms. The hypsomia, anosmia or olfactory dysfunction was most frequent symptom. Other symptoms were headache or dizziness, dysgeusia or ageusia, dysphonia and fatigue. Depression, anxiety, and confusion were less frequent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Hypesthesia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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