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Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20243568


BackgroundTo date, there are no comprehensive data on antibiotic use in children with COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C). MethodsMulticenter cohort study from 5 Latin American countries. Children 17 years of age or younger with microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or fulfilling MIS-C definition were included. Antibiotic prescriptions were collected and factors associated with their use were calculated. Findings990 children were included, with a median age of 3 years (interquartile range 1-9). Of these, 69 (7.0%) were diagnosed with MIS-C. The prevalence of antibiotic use was 24.5% (n = 243). MIS-C with (OR = 45.48) or without (OR = 10.35) cardiac involvement, provision of intensive care (OR = 9.60), need for hospital care (OR = 6.87), pneumonia and/or ARDS detected through chest X-rays (OR = 4.40), administration of systemic corticosteroids (OR = 4.39), oxygen support, mechanical ventilation or CPAP (OR = 2.21), pyrexia (OR = 1.84), and female sex (OR = 1.50) were independently associated with increased use of antibiotics. On the contrary, lower respiratory tract infections without radiologic evidence of pneumonia/ARDS and not requiring respiratory support (OR = 0.34) were independently associated with decreased use of antibiotics. There was significant variation in antibiotic use across the hospitals. ConclusionsOur study showed a relatively high rate of antibiotic prescriptions in children with COVID-19 and in particular in those with severe disease or MIS-C. Importantly, we found a significant variation in reasons for prescriptions of antibiotics and type of chosen therapies, as well in hospital practices, highlighting current uncertainties and lack of guidelines for the recognition of bacterial infections in children with COVID-19. Prospective studies are needed to provide better evidence on the recognition and management of bacterial infections in COVID-19 children. What is knownCOVID-19 may worsen antibiotic prescription practices What this newCOVID-19 and MIS-C children frequently received antibiotics There was a wide variation in antibiotic prescriptions among institutions, highlighting the lack of practicle guidelines in the use of antibiotics in children with COVID-19

Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20184242


BackgroundTo date, there are no comprehensive data on pediatric COVID-19 from Latin America. This study aims to assess COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) in Latin American children, in order to appropriately plan and allocate resources to face the pandemic on a local and International lever MethodsAmbispective multicentre cohort study from five Latin American countries. Children aged 18 years or younger with microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Findings409 children were included, with a median age of 53.0 years (IQR 0.6-9.0). Of these, 95 191 (23.2%) were diagnosed with MIS-C. 191 (46.7%) children were admitted to hospital and 52 (12.7%) required admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unite (PICU). 92 (22.5%) patients required oxygen support: 8 (2%) were started on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and 29 (7%) on mechanical ventilation. 35 (8.5%) patients required inotropic support. The following factors were associated with PICU admission: pre-existing medical condition (P < 0.0001), immunodeficiency (P = 0.01), lower respiratory tract infection (P< 0.0001), gastrointestinal symptoms (P = 0.006), radiological changes suggestive of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (P< 0.0001), low socioeconomic conditions (P 0.009). ConclusionsThis study shows a generally more severe form of COVID-19 and a high number of MIS-C in Latin American children, compared with studies from China, Europe and North America, and support current evidence of a more severe disease in Latin/Hyspanic children or in people of lower socioeconomic level. The findings highlight an urgent need of more data of COVID-19 in South America.