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1.; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202206.0411.v1


Background: Some viruses cause outbreaks which require immediate attention. Neutralizing antibodies could be developed for viral outbreak management. However, development of monoclonal antibodies is often long, laborious, and unprofitable. Here we report a Norwegian platform for development of chicken polyclonal neutralizing antibodies with powerful therapeutic potential. Methods: Layers were immunized twice with 14-day interval using purified RBD of SARS-CoV-2. Eggs were harvested 14 days after the second immunization. Polyclonal IgY antibodies were extracted. Binding of anti-RBD IgY to RBD was measured by indirect ELISA. Neutralization capacity of anti-RBD IgYs was measured in Vero-E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2-mCherry strain using fluorescence and cell viability assay. In addition, the effect of IgYs on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 and host cytokine genes in lungs of Syrian Golden hamsters was examined using qRT-PCR. Results: Anti-RBD IgYs efficiently bind RBD of S protein of SARS-CoV-2 in situ, neutralize the virus in vitro, and lower viral RNA amplification without significant alteration of virus-mediated immune gene expression in vivo. Conclusions: Altogether, our results indicated that chicken polyclonal IgYs can be attractive targets for pre-clinical and clinical development for rapid management of outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging viruses.

biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.05.425331


There is an urgent need for new antivirals with powerful therapeutic potential and tolerable side effects. In the present study, we found that recombinant human interferon-alpha (IFNa) triggers intrinsic and extrinsic cellular antiviral responses, as well as reduces replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro. Although IFNa alone was insufficient to completely abolish SARS-CoV-2 replication, combinations of IFNa with remdesivir or other antiviral agents (EIDD-2801, camostat, cycloheximide, or convalescent serum) showed strong synergy and effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. Furthermore, we showed that the IFNa-remdesivir combination suppressed virus replication in human lung organoids, and that its single prophylactic dose attenuated SARS-CoV-2 infection in lungs of Syrian hamsters. Transcriptome and metabolomic analyses showed that the combination of IFNa-remdesivir suppressed virus-mediated changes in infected cells, although it affected the homeostasis of uninfected cells. We also demonstrated synergistic antiviral activity of IFNa2a-based combinations against other virus infections in vitro. Altogether, our results indicate that IFNa2a-based combination therapies can achieve higher efficacy while requiring lower dosage compared to monotherapies, making them attractive targets for further pre-clinical and clinical development.

Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome