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Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab268, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320320


Monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike protein are important outpatient treatment options in coronavirus disease 2019 to mitigate progression of disease and prevent hospitalization. The impact of different RBD mutations on the efficacy of the available monoclonal antibodies and processes for incorporating this impact into treatment algorithms are ill defined. Herein, we synthesize the data surrounding the impact of key RBD mutations on the efficacy of US Food and Drug Administration Emergency Use Authorized monoclonal antibodies and describe our approach at Michigan Medicine at monitoring mutation frequency in circulating virus and developing an algorithm that incorporates these data into outpatient treatment pathways.

Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e445-e454, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640452


BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest in rapid decompensation and respiratory failure with elevated inflammatory markers, consistent with cytokine release syndrome for which IL-6 blockade is an approved treatment. METHODS: We assessed effectiveness and safety of IL-6 blockade with tocilizumab in a single-center cohort of patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary endpoint was survival probability postintubation; secondary analyses included an ordinal illness severity scale integrating superinfections. Outcomes in patients who received tocilizumab compared with tocilizumab-untreated controls were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression with propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: 154 patients were included, of whom 78 received tocilizumab and 76 did not. Median follow-up was 47 days (range, 28-67). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, although tocilizumab-treated patients were younger (mean: 55 vs 60 years), less likely to have chronic pulmonary disease (10% vs 28%), and had lower D-dimer values at time of intubation (median: 2.4 vs 6.5 mg/dL). In IPTW-adjusted models, tocilizumab was associated with a 45% reduction in hazard of death (HR, .55; 95% CI, .33-.90) and improved status on the ordinal outcome scale [OR per 1-level increase, .58; .36-.94). Although tocilizumab was associated with an increased proportion of patients with superinfections (54% vs 26%; P < .001), there was no difference in 28-day case fatality rate among tocilizumab-treated patients with versus without superinfection (22% vs 15%; P = .42). Staphylococcus aureus accounted for ~50% of bacterial pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, tocilizumab was associated with lower mortality despite higher superinfection occurrence.

COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome