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1.
J Biol Chem ; : 101290, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472024

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic illustrates the importance of obtaining reliable methods for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2. A highly specific and sensitive diagnostic test able to differentiate the SARS-CoV-2 virus from common human coronaviruses is therefore needed. Coronavirus nucleoprotein (N) localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleolus, and are required for viral RNA synthesis. N is the most abundant coronavirus protein, so it is of utmost importance to develop specific antibodies for its detection. In this study, we developed a sandwich immunoassay to recognize the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. We immunized one alpaca with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 N and constructed a large single variable domain on heavy chain (VHH) antibody library. After phage display selection, 7 VHHs recognizing the full N protein were identified by ELISA. These VHHs did not recognize the nucleoproteins of the four common human coronaviruses. Hydrogen Deuterium eXchange-Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) analysis also showed that these VHHs mainly targeted conformational epitopes in either the C-terminal or the N-terminal domains. All VHHs were able to recognize SARS-CoV-2 in infected cells or on infected hamster tissues. Moreover, the VHHs could detect the SARS variants B.1.17/alpha, B.1.351/beta and P1/gamma. We propose that this sandwich immunoassay could be applied to specifically detect the SARS-CoV-2 N in human nasal swabs.

2.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 13: 100197, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309327

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2020 Lao PDR had low reported COVID-19 cases but it was unclear whether this masked silent transmission. A seroprevalence study was done August - September 2020 to determine SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Methods: Participants were from the general community (n=2433) or healthcare workers (n=666) in five provinces and bat/wildlife contacts (n=74) were from Vientiane province. ELISAs detected anti- SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (N; n=3173 tested) and Spike (S; n=1417 tested) antibodies. Double-positive samples were checked by IgM/IgG rapid tests. Controls were confirmed COVID-19 cases (n=15) and pre-COVID-19 samples (n=265). Seroprevalence for the general community was weighted to account for complex survey sample design, age and sex. Findings: In pre-COVID-19 samples, 5·3%, [95% CI=3·1-8·7%] were anti-N antibody single-positive and 1·1% [0·3-3·5%] were anti-S antibody single positive. None were double positive. Anti-N and anti-S antibodies were detected in 5·2% [4·2-6·5%] and 2·1% [1·1-3·9%] of the general community, 2·0% [1·1-3·3%] and 1·4% [0·5-3·7%] of healthcare workers and 20·3% [12·6-31·0%] and 6·8% [2·8-15·3%] of bat/wildlife contacts. 0·1% [0·02-0·3%] were double positive for anti-N and anti-S antibodies (rapid test negative). Interpretation: We find no evidence for significant SARS-CoV-2 circulation in Lao PDR before September 2020. This likely results from early decisive measures taken by the government, social behavior, and low population density. High anti-N /low anti-S seroprevalence in bat/wildlife contacts may indicate exposure to cross-reactive animal coronaviruses with threat of emerging novel viruses. Funding: Agence Française de Développement. Additional; Institut Pasteur du Laos, Institute Pasteur, Paris and Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs ("PaReCIDS II").

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3025, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237997

ABSTRACT

Assessment of the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections is critical for monitoring the course and extent of the COVID-19 epidemic. Here, we report estimated seroprevalence in the French population and the proportion of infected individuals who developed neutralising antibodies at three points throughout the first epidemic wave. Testing 11,000 residual specimens for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralising antibodies, we find nationwide seroprevalence of 0.41% (95% CI: 0.05-0.88) mid-March, 4.14% (95% CI: 3.31-4.99) mid-April and 4.93% (95% CI: 4.02-5.89) mid-May 2020. Approximately 70% of seropositive individuals have detectable neutralising antibodies. Infection fatality rate is 0.84% (95% CI: 0.70-1.03) and increases exponentially with age. These results confirm that the nationwide lockdown substantially curbed transmission and that the vast majority of the French population remained susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 in May 2020. Our study shows the progression of the first epidemic wave and provides a framework to inform the ongoing public health response as viral transmission continues globally.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Epidemics , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
4.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(1): 180-190, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023283

ABSTRACT

Although the COVID-19 pandemic peaked in March/April 2020 in France, the prevalence of infection is barely known. Using high-throughput methods, we assessed herein the serological response against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of 1847 participants working in three sites of an institution in Paris conurbation. In May-July 2020, 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.7-12.6) of serums were positive for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 N and S proteins, and 9.5% (95% CI: 8.2-11.0) were neutralizer in pseudo-typed virus assays. The prevalence of seroconversion was 11.6% (95% CI: 10.2-13.2) when considering positivity in at least one assay. In 5% of RT-qPCR positive individuals, no systemic IgGs were detected. Among immune individuals, 21% had been asymptomatic. Anosmia (loss of smell) and ageusia (loss of taste) occurred in 52% of the IgG-positive individuals and in 3% of the negative ones. In contrast, 30% of the anosmia-ageusia cases were seronegative, suggesting that the true prevalence of infection may have reached 16.6%. In sera obtained 4-8 weeks after the first sampling, anti-N and anti-S IgG titers and neutralization activity in pseudo-virus assay declined by 31%, 17%, and 53%, resulting thus in half-life of 35, 87, and 28 days, respectively. The population studied is representative of active workers in Paris. The short lifespan of the serological systemic responses suggests an underestimation of the true prevalence of infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 236-249.e6, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978240

ABSTRACT

To develop a vaccine candidate against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we generated a lentiviral vector (LV) eliciting neutralizing antibodies against the Spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Systemic vaccination by this vector in mice, in which the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor hACE2 has been induced by transduction of respiratory tract cells by an adenoviral vector, confers only partial protection despite high levels of serum neutralizing activity. However, eliciting an immune response in the respiratory tract through an intranasal boost results in a >3 log10 decrease in the lung viral loads and reduces local inflammation. Moreover, both integrative and non-integrative LV platforms display strong vaccine efficacy and inhibit lung deleterious injury in golden hamsters, which are naturally permissive to SARS-CoV-2 replication and closely mirror human COVID-19 physiopathology. Our results provide evidence of marked prophylactic effects of LV-based vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and designate intranasal immunization as a powerful approach against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cricetinae , Female , Genetic Vectors , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Lentivirus/genetics , Lentivirus/immunology , Male , Mice , Models, Animal , Respiratory System/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
6.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(559)2020 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724557

ABSTRACT

It is of paramount importance to evaluate the prevalence of both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and their differing antibody response profiles. Here, we performed a pilot study of four serological assays to assess the amounts of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum samples obtained from 491 healthy individuals before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, 51 individuals hospitalized with COVID-19, 209 suspected cases of COVID-19 with mild symptoms, and 200 healthy blood donors. We used two ELISA assays that recognized the full-length nucleoprotein (N) or trimeric spike (S) protein ectodomain of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we developed the S-Flow assay that recognized the S protein expressed at the cell surface using flow cytometry, and the luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assay that recognized diverse SARS-CoV-2 antigens including the S1 domain and the carboxyl-terminal domain of N by immunoprecipitation. We obtained similar results with the four serological assays. Differences in sensitivity were attributed to the technique and the antigen used. High anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were associated with neutralization activity, which was assessed using infectious SARS-CoV-2 or lentiviral-S pseudotype virus. In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, seroconversion and virus neutralization occurred between 5 and 14 days after symptom onset, confirming previous studies. Seropositivity was detected in 32% of mildly symptomatic individuals within 15 days of symptom onset and in 3% of healthy blood donors. The four antibody assays that we used enabled a broad evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody profiling in different subpopulations within one region.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , France/epidemiology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoprecipitation/methods , Luciferases , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 3069-3071, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713381

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, a severe respiratory syndrome developed in a cat, 1 week after its owner received positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Viral RNA was detected in the cat's nasopharyngeal swab samples and vomitus or feces; immunoglobulin against the virus was found in convalescent-phase serum. Human-to-cat transmission is suspected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Animals , Belgium , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Viral Zoonoses
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