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Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 813175, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686504

ABSTRACT

Previous studies suggested that patients with comorbidities including cancer had a higher risk of mortality or developing more severe forms of COVID-19. The interaction of cancer and COVID-19 is unrecognized and potential long-term effects of COVID-19 on cancer outcome remain to be explored. Furthermore, whether COVID-19 increases the risk of cancer in those without previous history of malignancies, has not yet been studied. Cancer progression, recurrence and metastasis depend on the complex interaction between the tumor and the host inflammatory response. Extreme proinflammatory cytokine release (cytokine storm) and multi-organ failure are hallmarks of severe COVID-19. Besides impaired T-Cell response, elevated levels of cytokines, growth factors and also chemokines in the plasma of patients in the acute phase of COVID-19 as well as tissue damage and chronic low-grade inflammation in "long COVID-19" syndrome may facilitate cancer progression and recurrence. Following a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, some counterbalancing compensatory anti-inflammatory mechanisms will be activated to restore immune homeostasis. On the other hand, there remains the possibility of the integration of SARS- CoV-2 into the host genome, which potentially may cause cancer. These mechanisms have also been shown to be implicated in both tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this review, we are going to focus on potential mechanisms and the molecular interplay, which connect COVID-19, inflammation, and immune-mediated tumor progression that may propose a framework to understand the possible role of COVID-19 infection in tumorgenesis and cancer progression.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244038

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, a new member of the Coronaviridae family, officially designated as "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), emerged and spread rapidly. The Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak was accompanied by a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Within the Coronaviridae family, SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be the third most highly pathogenic virus that infects humans, following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Four major mechanisms are thought to be involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis, including the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling pathway, oxidative stress and cell death, cytokine storm, and endothelial dysfunction. Following virus entry and RAS activation, acute respiratory distress syndrome develops with an oxidative/nitrosative burst. The DNA damage induced by oxidative stress activates poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), viral macrodomain of non-structural protein 3, poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), and transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (TRPM2) channel in a sequential manner which results in cell apoptosis or necrosis. In this review, blockers of angiotensin II receptor and/or PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, including vitamin D3, trehalose, tannins, flufenamic and mefenamic acid, and losartan, have been investigated for inhibiting RAS activation and quenching oxidative burst. Moreover, the application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles, including liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and iron oxides, as therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2 were fully reviewed. In the present review, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are explained by focusing on molecular mechanisms. Potential therapeutic targets, including the RAS signaling pathway, PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, are also discussed in depth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , GTPase-Activating Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , TRPM Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , TRPM Cation Channels/metabolism , Tannins/pharmacology , Trehalose/pharmacology
3.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(6): 2150-2176, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225482

ABSTRACT

Human respiratory viral infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Among the various respiratory viruses, coronaviruses (e.g., SARS-CoV-2) have created the greatest challenge and most frightening health threat worldwide. Human coronaviruses typically infect the upper respiratory tract, causing illnesses that range from common cold-like symptoms to severe acute respiratory infections. Several promising vaccine formulations have become available since the beginning of 2021. Nevertheless, achievement of herd immunity is still far from being realized. Social distancing remains the only effective measure against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nanobiotechnology enables the design of nanobiosensors. These nanomedical diagnostic devices have opened new vistas for early detection of viral infections. The present review outlines recent research on the effectiveness of nanoplatforms as diagnostic and antiviral tools against coronaviruses. The biological properties of coronavirus and infected host organs are discussed. The challenges and limitations encountered in combating SARS-CoV-2 are highlighted. Potential nanodevices such as nanosensors, nanobased vaccines, and smart nanomedicines are subsequently presented for combating current and future mutated versions of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Cold , Viruses , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Common Cold/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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