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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540039

ABSTRACT

Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716556.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254404, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304473

ABSTRACT

Is it possible to achieve a collaboration between Infectious Diseases (ID) Specialists and General Practitioners (GPs) in the management of chronic HIV infection? A cross sectional survey was conducted among People Living with HIV (PLWHIV) attending the outpatient services of four Italian Infectious Diseases Centers to understand to which extent patients trust their GPs and involve them in the management of their chronic condition. Information about level of communication with GPs, subjective perception of the disease, and presence of co-medications were collected and matched with socio-demographic data using χ2statistics. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. From December 2019 to February 2020, 672 patients completed the survey, 59% males and 56% >50 years. Overall, 508 patients (76%) had informed GPs about HIV-positivity. Communication of diagnosis was significantly associated with age >50years, lower education level, history of disease >10 years and residency in Northern Italy. The "Undetectable = Untrasmittable" (U = U) concept was investigated as an indirect measure of perceived stigma. 23% of subjects was unaware of its meaning. Despite undetectable status, 50% of PLWHIV found difficult to communicate their condition to GPs, especially married (52% vs 48% of unmarried, p = 0.003), well-educated patients (51% vs 48, p = 0.007), living in Southern vs Northern Italy (52% vs 46%, p< 0.001). More than 75% of the participants consulted the ID specialist for co-medications and DDIs management, often complaining a lack of communication of the former with GPs. Overall, a good level of communication between PLWHIV and GPs was outlined, even if a wider involvement of the latter in HIV care is desirable.


Subject(s)
General Practitioners , HIV Infections , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 258-263, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959831

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk factors for non-invasive/invasive ventilatory support (NI/I-VS) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Santa Maria Annunziata Hospital (Florence, Italy), from February 25 to April 25, 2020, with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. NI/I-VS was defined as the need for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) (non-invasive ventilation) or mechanical ventilation, not including low-flow systems of oxygen therapy such as the Venturi mask or nasal cannula. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were enrolled; 61.9% (60/97) were male and the median patient age was 64 years. The in-hospital mortality was 9.3%. Thirty-five of the 97 patients (36%) required ICU admission and 94.8% (92/97) were prescribed oxygen therapy: 10.8% (10/92) by nasal cannula, 44.5% (41/92) by Venturi mask, 31.5% (29/92) by CPAP, 2.2% (2/92) by BPAP, and 10.8% (10/92) by mechanical ventilation following intubation. On univariate analysis, patients with a body mass index >30, type II diabetes mellitus, and those presenting with dyspnoea, asthenia, SOFA score ≥2 points, PaO2/FiO2 <300, temperature >38 °C, increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase, and C-reactive protein, and a d-dimer >1000 ng/mL at admission more frequently underwent NI/I-VS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed temperature >38 °C (odds ratio (OR) 21.2, 95% confidential interval (95% CI) 3.5-124.5, p = 0.001), LDH >250 U/l (OR 15.2, 95% CI 1.8-128.8, p = 0.012), and d-dimer >1000 ng/mL (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.2-17.3, p = 0.027) as significantly associated with the requirement for NI/I-VS. A non-significant trend (p = 0.051) was described for PaO2/FiO2 <300. CONCLUSIONS: Temperature >38 °C, LDH > 250 U/l, and d-dimer >1000 ng/mL were found to be independent risk factors for NI/I-VS in COVID-19 patients. In order to quickly identify patients likely at risk of developing a critical illness, inflammatory markers should be assessed upon hospital admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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