Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(5): 290-303, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883852

ABSTRACT

In the past 20 years, cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has become a pivotal technique for the noninvasive diagnostic workup of coronary and cardiac diseases. Continuous technical and methodological improvements, combined with fast growing scientific evidence, have progressively expanded the clinical role of CCT. Randomized clinical trials documented the value of CCT in increasing the cost-effectiveness of the management of patients with acute chest pain presenting in the emergency department, also during the pandemic. Beyond the evaluation of stents and surgical graft patency, the anatomical and functional coronary imaging have the potential to guide treatment decision-making and planning for complex left main and three-vessel coronary disease. Furthermore, there has been an increasing demand to use CCT for preinterventional planning in minimally invasive procedures, such as transcatheter valve implantation and mitral valve repair. Yet, the use of CCT as a roadmap for tailored electrophysiological procedures has gained increasing importance to assure maximum success. In the meantime, innovations and advanced postprocessing tools have generated new potential applications of CCT from the simple coronary anatomy to the complete assessment of structural, functional and pathophysiological biomarkers of cardiac disease. In this complex and revolutionary scenario, it is urgently needed to provide an updated guide for the appropriate use of CCT in different clinical settings. This manuscript, endorsed by the Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC) and the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology (SIRM), represents the second of two consensus documents collecting the expert opinion of cardiologists and radiologists about current appropriate use of CCT.


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Cardiomyopathies , Heart Diseases , Neoplasms , Chest Pain , Coronary Artery Bypass , Humans , Radiology, Interventional , Stents , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
2.
Front Nutr ; 9: 846901, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809460

ABSTRACT

Background: Persistent symptoms including dyspnea and functional impairment are common in COVID-19 survivors. Poor muscle quality (myosteatosis) associates with poor short-term outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this observational study was to assess the relationship between myosteatosis diagnosed during acute COVID-19 and patient-reported outcomes at 6 months after discharge. Methods: Myosteatosis was diagnosed based on CT-derived skeletal muscle radiation attenuation (SM-RA) measured during hospitalization in 97 COVID-19 survivors who had available anthropometric and clinical data upon admission and at the 6-month follow-up after discharge. Dyspnea in daily activities was assessed using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale for dyspnea. Health-related quality of life was measured using the European quality of life questionnaire three-level version (EQ-5D-3L). Results: Characteristics of patients with (lowest sex- and age-specific tertile of SM-RA) or without myosteatosis during acute COVID-19 were similar. At 6 months, patients with myosteatosis had greater rates of obesity (48.4 vs. 27.7%, p = 0.046), abdominal obesity (80.0 vs. 47.6%, p = 0.003), dyspnea (32.3 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.021) and mobility problems (32.3 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.004). Myosteatosis diagnosed during acute COVID-19 was the only significant predictor of persistent dyspnea (OR 3.19 [95% C.I. 1.04; 9.87], p = 0.043) and mobility problems (OR 3.70 [95% C.I. 1.25; 10.95], p = 0.018) at 6 months at logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. Conclusion: Myosteatosis diagnosed during acute COVID-19 significantly predicts persistent dyspnea and mobility problems at 6 months after hospital discharge independent of age, sex, and body mass. Clinical Trial Registration: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT04318366].

3.
Eur Radiol ; 32(7): 4352-4360, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712233

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess clinical and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging features of patients with peri-myocarditis following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. METHODS: We retrospectively collected a case series of 27 patients who underwent CMR in the clinical suspect of heart inflammation following COVID-19 vaccination, from 16 large tertiary centers. Our patient's cohort was relatively young (36.6 ± 16.8 years), predominately included males (n = 25/27) with few comorbidities and covered a catchment area of approximately 8 million vaccinated patients. RESULTS: CMR revealed typical mid-subepicardial non-ischemic late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in 23 cases and matched positively with CMR T2 criteria of myocarditis. In 7 cases, typical hallmarks of acute pericarditis were present. Short-term follow-up (median = 20 days) from presentation was uneventful for 25/27 patients and unavailable in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: While establishing a causal relationship between peri-myocardial inflammation and vaccine administration can be challenging, our clinical experience suggests that CMR should be performed for diagnosis confirmation and to drive clinical decision-making and follow-up. KEY POINTS: • Acute onset of dyspnea, palpitations, or acute and persisting chest pain after COVID-19 vaccination should raise the suspicion of possible myocarditis or pericarditis, and patients should seek immediate medical attention and treatment to help recovery and avoid complications. • In case of elevated troponin levels and/or relevant ECG changes, cardiac magnetic resonance should be considered as the best non-invasive diagnostic option to confirm the diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis and to drive clinical decision-making and follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media/pharmacology , Gadolinium/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/diagnostic imaging , Pericarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
4.
Hypertens Res ; 45(2): 333-343, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521736

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is associated with more severe disease and adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Recent investigations have indicated that hypertension might be an independent predictor of outcomes in COVID-19 patients regardless of other cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities. We explored the significance of coronary calcifications in 694 hypertensive patients in the Score-COVID registry, an Italian multicenter study conducted during the first pandemic wave in the Western world (March-April 2020). A total of 1565 patients admitted with RNA-PCR-positive nasopharyngeal swabs and chest computed tomography (CT) at hospital admission were included in the study. Clinical outcomes and cardiovascular calcifications were analyzed independently by a research core lab. Hypertensive patients had a different risk profile than nonhypertensive patients, with more cardiovascular comorbidities. The deceased hypertensive patients had a greater coronary calcification burden at the level of the anterior descending coronary artery. Hypertension status and the severity cutoffs of coronary calcifications were used to stratify the clinical outcomes. For every 100-mm3 increase in coronary calcium volume, hospital mortality in hypertensive patients increased by 8%, regardless of sex, age, diabetes, creatinine, and lung interstitial involvement. The coronary calcium score contributes to stratifying the risk of complications in COVID-19 patients. Cardiovascular calcifications appear to be a promising imaging marker for providing pathophysiological insight into cardiovascular risk factors and COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Hypertension , Vascular Calcification , Calcium , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology
5.
Echocardiography ; 38(10): 1778-1786, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury (MI) can be detected during the acute phase of Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and is associated with a dismal prognosis. Recent imaging studies described the persistence of cardiac abnormalities after the recovery. The aim of the study was to investigate the spectrum of cardiac abnormalities at mid-term follow-up in patients recovered from COVID-19 using clinical assessment, laboratory tests, and imaging evaluation with comprehensive echocardiography. METHODS: This is an observational, cross-sectional study assessing an unselected cohort of consecutive patients recovered from COVID-19. MI was defined by elevated plasma levels of high sensitive troponin T (hsTnT). At the follow-up, a complete examination including echocardiography was performed. RESULTS: The 123 patients included were divided into two groups according to the presence of MI during hospitalization: group A (without MI) and group B (with MI). After a median of 85 days, group B patients were more frequently symptomatic for dyspnea and had significantly higher values of hsTnT and N-Terminal prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), compared to Group A. No differences between the two groups in left nor right ventricle dimension and ejection fraction were found. However, in group B a significant reduction of mean left ventricle global longitudinal strain was observed (-15.7±.7 vs -18.1± .3 in group A, p < 0.001), together with higher frequency of impaired diastolic function and higher values of pulmonary pressure. CONCLUSIONS: In patients recovered from COVID-19, echocardiography with speckle-tracking analysis may be an useful imaging tool to identify subclinical myocardial dysfunction and potentially guide management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart/physiopathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Humans , Myocardium , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Peptide Fragments , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 603428, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389167

ABSTRACT

In this work we present the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 1.5-year-old boy affected by severe Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome with previous history of autoinflammatory disease, occurring 5 months after treatment with gene therapy. Before SARS-CoV-2 infection, the patient had obtained engraftment of gene corrected cells, resulting in WASP expression restoration and early immune reconstitution. The patient produced specific immunoglobulins to SARS-CoV-2 at high titer with neutralizing capacity and experienced a mild course of infection, with limited inflammatory complications, despite pre-gene therapy clinical phenotype.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Genetic Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/blood , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/immunology , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/therapy , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein/biosynthesis , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein/immunology
7.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(3): 552-556, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358629

ABSTRACT

We present, to our knowledge, the first case of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) application in a 12-year-old child with arrhythmogenic inflammatory cardiomyopathy resulting from the overlap between autoimmune myocarditis and primary arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Indication to off-lable IST was compelling, because of recurrent drug-refractory ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). We show that IST was feasible, safe, and effective on multiple clinical endpoints, including symptoms, VA recurrences, and T-troponin release. Remarkably, all diagnostic and therapeutic strategies were worked out by a dedicated multidisciplinary team, including specialized pediatric immunologists.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/drug therapy , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/immunology , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Child , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Risk Factors
8.
Geroscience ; 43(5): 2215-2229, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309072

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical and demographical studies on COVID-19 patients have demonstrated that men experience worse outcomes than women. However, in most cases, the data were not stratified according to gender, limiting the understanding of the real impact of gender on outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the disaggregated in-hospital outcomes and explore the possible interactions between gender and cardiovascular calcifications. Data was derived from the sCORE-COVID-19 registry, an Italian multicentre registry that enrolled COVID-19 patients who had undergone a chest computer tomography scan on admission. A total of 1683 hospitalized patients (mean age 67±14 years) were included. Men had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, a higher pneumonia extension, more coronary calcifications (63% vs.50.9%, p<0.001), and a higher coronary calcium score (391±847 vs. 171±479 mm3, p<0.001). Men experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (24.4% vs. 17%, p=0.001), but the death event tended to occur earlier in women (15±7 vs. 8±7 days, p= 0.07). Non-survivors had a higher coronary, thoracic aorta, and aortic valve calcium score. Female sex, a known independent predictor of a favorable outcome in SARS-CoV2 infection, was not protective in women with a coronary calcification volume greater than 100 mm3. There were significant differences in cardiovascular comorbidities and vascular calcifications between men and women with SARS-CoV2 pneumonia. The differences in outcomes can be at least partially explained by the different cardiovascular profiles. However, women with poor outcomes had the same coronary calcific burden as men. The presumed favorable female sex bias in COVID-19 must therefore be reviewed in the context of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Calcification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(14)2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302357

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Several studies have unveiled the great heterogeneity of COVID-19 pneumonia. Identification of the "vascular phenotype" (involving both pulmonary parenchyma and its circulation) has prognostic significance. Our aim was to explore the combined role of chest computed tomography (CT) scan and electrocardiogram (ECG) at hospital admission in predicting short-term prognosis and to draw pathophysiological insights. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the chest CT scan and ECG performed at admission in 151 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted between 20 March and 4 April 2020. All-cause mortality within 30 days was the primary endpoint. Median age was 71 years (IQR: 62-76). Severe pneumonia was present in 25 (17%) patients, and 121 (80%) had abnormal ECG. During a median follow-up of 7 days (IQR: 4-13), 54 (36%) patients died. Deceased patients had more severe pneumonia than survivors did (80% vs. 64%, p = 0.044). ECG in deceased patients showed more frequently atrial fibrillation/flutter (17% vs. 6%, p = 0.039) and acute right ventricular (RV) strain (35% vs. 10%, p < 0.001), suggesting the "vascular phenotype". ECG signs of acute RV strain (HR 2.46, 95% CIs 1.36-4.45, p = 0.0028) were independently associated with all-cause mortality in multivariable analysis, and in the likelihood ratio test, showed incremental prognostic value over chest CT scan, age, and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: Combining chest CT scan and ECG data improves risk stratification in COVID-19 pneumonia by identifying a distinctive phenotype with both parenchymal and vascular damage of the lung. Patients with severe pneumonia at chest CT scan plus ECG signs of acute RV strain have an extremely poor short-term prognosis.

11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2156-2164, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors associate with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, is a source of proinflammatory cytokines and a marker of visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation between EAT characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This post-hoc analysis of a large prospective investigation included all adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to San Raffaele University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from February 25th to April 19th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan for COVID-19 pneumonia and had anthropometric data available for analyses. EAT volume and attenuation (EAT-At, a marker of EAT inflammation) were measured on CT scan. Primary outcome was critical illness, defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilation or death. Cox regression and regression tree analyses were used to assess the relationship between clinical variables, EAT characteristics and critical illness. One-hundred and ninety-two patients were included (median [25th-75th percentile] age 60 years [53-70], 76% men). Co-morbidities included overweight/obesity (70%), arterial hypertension (40%), and diabetes (16%). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, EAT-At (HR 1.12 [1.04-1.21]) independently predicted critical illness, while increasing PaO2/FiO2 was protective (HR 0.996 [95% CI 0.993; 1.00]). CRP, plasma glucose on admission, EAT-At and PaO2/FiO2 identified five risk groups that significantly differed with respect to time to death or admission to ICU (log-rank p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased EAT attenuation, a marker of EAT inflammation, but not obesity or EAT volume, predicts critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiopathology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Pericardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
12.
Clin Imaging ; 77: 194-201, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify COVID-19 pneumonia features using CT performed at time of admission to emergency department in order to predict patients' hypoxia during the hospitalization and outcome. METHODS: Consecutive chest CT performed in the emergency department between March 1st and April 7th 2020 for COVID-19 pneumonia were analyzed. The three features of pneumonia (GGO, semi-consolidation and consolidation) and the percentage of well-aerated lung were quantified using a HU threshold based software. ROC curves identified the optimal cut-off values of CT parameters to predict hypoxia worsening and hospital discharge. Multiple Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the capability of CT quantitative features, demographic and clinical variables to predict the time to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients (median age 56-years-old, 51 men) with COVID-19 pneumonia at CT were enrolled. The quantitative features of COVID-19 pneumonia were not associated to age, sex and time-from-symptoms onset, whereas higher number of comorbidities was correlated to lower well-aerated parenchyma ratio (rho = -0.234, p = 0.04) and increased semi-consolidation ratio (rho = -0.303, p = 0.008). Well-aerated lung (≤57%), semi-consolidation (≥17%) and consolidation (≥9%) predicted worst hypoxemia during hospitalization, with moderate areas under curves (AUC 0.76, 0.75, 0.77, respectively). Multiple Cox regression identified younger age (p < 0.01), female sex (p < 0.001), longer time-from-symptoms onset (p = 0.049), semi-consolidation ≤17% (p < 0.01) and consolidation ≤13% (p = 0.03) as independent predictors of shorter time to hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: Quantification of pneumonia features on admitting chest CT predicted hypoxia worsening during hospitalization and time to hospital discharge in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis lacks systematic characterization in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients with newly diagnosed myocarditis in the context of COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic and treatment strategies were driven by a dedicated multidisciplinary disease unit for myocarditis. Multimodal outcomes were assessed during prospective follow-up. RESULTS: Seven consecutive patients (57% males, age 51 ± 9 y) with acute COVID-19 infection received a de novo diagnosis of myocarditis. Endomyocardial biopsy was of choice in hemodynamically unstable patients (n = 4, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 25 ± 9%), whereas cardiac magnetic resonance constituted the first exam in stable patients (n = 3, mean LVEF 48 ± 10%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed an intra-myocardial SARS-CoV-2 genome in one of the six cases undergoing biopsy: in the remaining patients, myocarditis was either due to other viruses (n = 2) or virus-negative (n = 3). Hemodynamic support was needed for four unstable patients (57%), whereas a cardiac device implant was chosen in two of four cases showing ventricular arrhythmias. Medical treatment included immunosuppression (43%) and biological therapy (29%). By the 6-month median follow-up, no patient died or experienced malignant arrhythmias. However, two cases (29%) were screened for heart transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis associated with acute COVID-19 infection is a spectrum of clinical manifestations and underlying etiologies. A multidisciplinary approach is the cornerstone for tailored management.

15.
Atherosclerosis ; 328: 136-143, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The potential impact of coronary atherosclerosis, as detected by coronary artery calcium, on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients remains unsettled. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of clinical and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD), as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), in a large, unselected population of hospitalized COVID-19 patients undergoing non-gated chest computed tomography (CT) for clinical practice. METHODS: SARS-CoV 2 positive patients from the multicenter (16 Italian hospitals), retrospective observational SCORE COVID-19 (calcium score for COVID-19 Risk Evaluation) registry were stratified in three groups: (a) "clinical CAD" (prior revascularization history), (b) "subclinical CAD" (CAC >0), (c) "No CAD" (CAC = 0). Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality and the secondary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident (MI/CVA). RESULTS: Amongst 1625 patients (male 67.2%, median age 69 [interquartile range 58-77] years), 31%, 57.8% and 11.1% had no, subclinical and clinical CAD, respectively. Increasing rates of in-hospital mortality (11.3% vs. 27.3% vs. 39.8%, p < 0.001) and MI/CVA events (2.3% vs. 3.8% vs. 11.9%, p < 0.001) were observed for patients with no CAD vs. subclinical CAD vs clinical CAD, respectively. The association with in-hospital mortality was independent of in-study outcome predictors (age, peripheral artery disease, active cancer, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, LDH, aerated lung volume): subclinical CAD vs. No CAD: adjusted hazard ratio (adj-HR) 2.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-7.17, p=0.025); clinical CAD vs. No CAD: adj-HR 3.74 (95% CI 1.21-11.60, p=0.022). Among patients with subclinical CAD, increasing CAC burden was associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality (20.5% vs. 27.9% vs. 38.7% for patients with CAC score thresholds≤100, 101-400 and > 400, respectively, p < 0.001). The adj-HR per 50 points increase in CAC score 1.007 (95%CI 1.001-1.013, p=0.016). Cardiovascular risk factors were not independent predictors of in-hospital mortality when CAD presence and extent were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and extent of CAD are associated with in-hospital mortality and MI/CVA among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease and they appear to be a better prognostic gauge as compared to a clinical cardiovascular risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Aged , Calcium , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(7): 912-920, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease can lead to severe functional impairments after discharge. We assessed the quality of life of invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS survivors. METHODS: We carried out a prospective follow-up study of the patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of a teaching hospital. Patients affected by COVID-19 ARDS who required invasive ventilation and were successfully discharged home were assessed through the telephone administration of validated tests. We explored survival, functional outcomes, return to work, quality of life, cognitive and psychological sequelae. The main variables of interest were the following: demographics, severity scores, laboratory values, comorbidities, schooling, working status, treatments received during ICU stay, complications, and psychological, cognitive, functional outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 116 consecutive invasively ventilated patients, overall survival was 65/116 (56%) with no death occurring after hospital discharge. Forty-two patients were already discharged home with a median follow-up time of 61 (51-71) days after ICU discharge and 39 of them accepted to be interviewed. Only one patient (1/39) experienced cognitive decline. The vast majority of patients reported no difficulty in walking (32/35:82%), self-care (33/39:85%), and usual activities (30/39:78%). All patients were either malnourished (15/39:38%) or at risk for malnutrition (24/39:62%). Exertional dyspnea was present in 20/39 (51%) patients. 19/39 (49%) reported alterations in senses of smell and/or taste either before or after hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS survivors have an overall good recovery at a 2-months follow-up which is better than what was previously reported in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies reported a high incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) among patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but detailed data about clinical characteristics, risk factors of these patients and prognostic role of PE are still lacking. We aim to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary embolism among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to describe their risk factors, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital clinical outcomes. METHODS: This is a multicenter Italian study including 333 consecutive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted to seven hospitals from February 22 to May 15, 2020. All the patients underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for PE detection. In particular, CTPA was performed in case of inadequate response to high-flow oxygen therapy (Fi02≥0.4 to maintain Sp02≥92%), elevated D-dimer (>0.5µg/mL), or echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among 333 patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and undergoing CTPA, PE was detected in 109 (33%) cases. At CTPA, subsegmental, segmental, lobar and central thrombi were detected in 31 (29%), 50 (46%), 20 (18%) and 8 (7%) cases, respectively. In-hospital death occurred in 29 (27%) patients in the PE-group and in 47 (21%) patients in the non-PE group (p = 0.25). Patients in PE-group had a low rate of traditional risk factors and deep vein thrombosis was detected in 29% of patients undergoing compression ultrasonography. In 71% of cases with documented PE, the thrombotic lesions were located in the correspondence of parenchymal consolidation areas. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a low rate of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, PE is present in about 1 out 3 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia undergoing CTPA for inadequate response to oxygen therapy, elevated D-dimer level, or echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction. In most of the cases, the thromboses were located distally in the pulmonary tree and were mainly confined within pneumonia areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(12): 3631-3641, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, dramatic endothelial cell damage with pulmonary microvascular thrombosis have been was hypothesized to occur. The aim was to assess whether pulmonary vascular thrombosis (PVT) is due to recurrent thromboembolism from peripheral deep vein thrombosis or to local inflammatory endothelial damage, with a superimposed thrombotic late complication. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Medical and intensive care unit wards of a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The authors report a subset of patients included in a prospective institutional study (CovidBiob study) with clinical suspicion of pulmonary vascular thromboembolism. INTERVENTIONS: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography and evaluation of laboratory markers and coagulation profile. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 55 (50.9%) patients showed PVT, with a median time interval from symptom onset of 17.5 days. Simultaneous multiple PVTs were identified in 22 patients, with bilateral involvement in 16, mostly affecting segmental/subsegmental pulmonary artery branches (67.8% and 96.4%). Patients with PVT had significantly higher ground glass opacity areas (31.7% [22.9-41] v 17.8% [10.8-22.1], p < 0.001) compared with those without PVT. Remarkably, in all 28 patients, ground glass opacities areas and PVT had an almost perfect spatial overlap. D-dimer level at hospital admission was predictive of PVT. CONCLUSIONS: The findings identified a specific radiologic pattern of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia with a unique spatial distribution of PVT overlapping areas of ground-glass opacities. These findings supported the hypothesis of a pathogenetic relationship between COVID-19 lung inflammation and PVT and challenged the previous definition of pulmonary embolism associated with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur Radiol ; 31(6): 4031-4041, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Enlarged main pulmonary artery diameter (MPAD) resulted to be associated with pulmonary hypertension and mortality in a non-COVID-19 setting. The aim was to investigate and validate the association between MPAD enlargement and overall survival in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a cohort study on 1469 consecutive COVID-19 patients submitted to chest CT within 72 h from admission in seven tertiary level hospitals in Northern Italy, between March 1 and April 20, 2020. Derivation cohort (n = 761) included patients from the first three participating hospitals; validation cohort (n = 633) included patients from the remaining hospitals. CT images were centrally analyzed in a core-lab blinded to clinical data. The prognostic value of MPAD on overall survival was evaluated at adjusted and multivariable Cox's regression analysis on the derivation cohort. The final multivariable model was tested on the validation cohort. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, the median age was 69 (IQR, 58-77) years and 537 (70.6%) were males. In the validation cohort, the median age was 69 (IQR, 59-77) years with 421 (66.5%) males. Enlarged MPAD (≥ 31 mm) was a predictor of mortality at adjusted (hazard ratio, HR [95%CI]: 1.741 [1.253-2.418], p < 0.001) and multivariable regression analysis (HR [95%CI]: 1.592 [1.154-2.196], p = 0.005), together with male gender, old age, high creatinine, low well-aerated lung volume, and high pneumonia extension (c-index [95%CI] = 0.826 [0.796-0.851]). Model discrimination was confirmed on the validation cohort (c-index [95%CI] = 0.789 [0.758-0.823]), also using CT measurements from a second reader (c-index [95%CI] = 0.790 [0.753;0.825]). CONCLUSION: Enlarged MPAD (≥ 31 mm) at admitting chest CT is an independent predictor of mortality in COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • Enlargement of main pulmonary artery diameter at chest CT performed within 72 h from the admission was associated with a higher rate of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. • Enlargement of main pulmonary artery diameter (≥ 31 mm) was an independent predictor of death in COVID-19 patients at adjusted and multivariable regression analysis. • The combined evaluation of clinical findings, lung CT features, and main pulmonary artery diameter may be useful for risk stratification in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Artery , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL