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Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512702


Longitudinal mapping of antibody-based SARS-CoV-2 immunity is critical for public health control of the pandemic and vaccine development. We performed a longitudinal analysis of the antibody-based immune response in a cohort of 100 COVID-19 individuals who were infected during the first wave of infection in northern Italy. The SARS-CoV-2 humoral response was tested using the COVID-SeroIndex, Kantaro Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibody RUO Kit (R&D Systems, Bio-Techne, Minneapolis, USA) and pseudotype-based neutralizing antibody assay. Using sequential serum samples collected from 100 COVID-19 recovered individuals from northern Italy-mostly with mild disease-at 2 and 10 months after their first positive PCR test, we show that 93% of them seroconverted at 2 months, with a geometric mean (GeoMean) half-maximal neutralization titer (NT50) of 387.9. Among the 35 unvaccinated subjects retested at 10 months, 7 resulted seronegative, with an 80% drop in seropositivity, while 28 showed decreased anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) and anti-spike (S) IgG titers, with a GeoMean NT50 neutralization titer dropping to 163.5. As an NT50 > 100 is known to confer protection from SARS-CoV-2 re-infection, our data show that the neutralizing activity elicited by the natural infection has lasted for at least 10 months in a large fraction of subjects.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226554


BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were: to investigate the capacity of the rare disease healthcare network in Campania to diagnose patients with rare diseases during the outbreak of Covid-19; and to shed light on problematic diagnoses during this period. METHODS: To describe the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of patients with rare diseases, a retrospective analysis of the Campania Region Rare Disease Registry was performed. A tailored questionnaire was sent to rare disease experts to investigate major issues during the emergency period. RESULTS: Prevalence of new diagnoses of rare disease in March and April 2020 was significantly lower than in 2019 (117 versus 317, P < 0.001 and 37 versus 349, P < 0.001, respectively) and 2018 (117 versus 389, P < 0.001 and 37 versus 282, P < 0.001, respectively). Eighty-two among 98 rare disease experts completed the questionnaire. Diagnostic success (95%), access to diagnosis (80%) and follow-up (72%), lack of Personal Protective Equipment (60%), lack of Covid-19 guidelines (50%) and the need for home therapy (78%) were the most important issues raised during Covid-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the effects of the Covid-19 outbreak on the diagnosis of rare disease in a single Italian region and investigates potential issues of diagnosis and management during this period.