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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3840, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915272

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants raise questions about escape from previous immunity. As the population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 has become more complex due to prior infections with different variants, vaccinations or the combination of both, understanding the antigenic relationship between variants is needed. Here, we have assessed neutralizing capacity of 120 blood specimens from convalescent individuals infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2, Alpha, Beta, Gamma or Delta, double vaccinated individuals and patients after breakthrough infections with Delta or Omicron-BA.1. Neutralization against seven authentic SARS-CoV-2 isolates (B.1, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Zeta and Omicron-BA.1) determined by plaque-reduction neutralization assay allowed us to map the antigenic relationship of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Highest neutralization titers were observed against the homologous variant. Antigenic cartography identified Zeta and Omicron-BA.1 as separate antigenic clusters. Substantial immune escape in vaccinated individuals was detected for Omicron-BA.1 but not Zeta. Combined infection/vaccination derived immunity results in less Omicron-BA.1 immune escape. Last, breakthrough infections with Omicron-BA.1 lead to broadly neutralizing sera.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination
2.
Nature ; 602(7896): 307-313, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585832

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of concern (VOCs) are driving the COVID-19 pandemic1,2. Experimental assessments of replication and transmission of major VOCs and progenitors are needed to understand the mechanisms of replication and transmission of VOCs3. Here we show that the spike protein (S) from Alpha (also known as B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) VOCs had a greater affinity towards the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor than that of the progenitor variant S(D614G) in vitro. Progenitor variant virus expressing S(D614G) (wt-S614G) and the Alpha variant showed similar replication kinetics in human nasal airway epithelial cultures, whereas the Beta variant was outcompeted by both. In vivo, competition experiments showed a clear fitness advantage of Alpha over wt-S614G in ferrets and two mouse models-the substitutions in S were major drivers of the fitness advantage. In hamsters, which support high viral replication levels, Alpha and wt-S614G showed similar fitness. By contrast, Beta was outcompeted by Alpha and wt-S614G in hamsters and in mice expressing human ACE2. Our study highlights the importance of using multiple models to characterize fitness of VOCs and demonstrates that Alpha is adapted for replication in the upper respiratory tract and shows enhanced transmission in vivo in restrictive models, whereas Beta does not overcome Alpha or wt-S614G in naive animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Animals, Laboratory/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virulence/genetics
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 412-423, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585244

ABSTRACT

Although frequently reported since the beginning of the pandemic, questions remain regarding the impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interaction with circulating respiratory viruses in coinfected patients. We here investigated dual infections involving early-pandemic SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha variant and three of the most prevalent respiratory viruses, rhinovirus (RV) and Influenza A and B viruses (IAV and IBV), in reconstituted respiratory airway epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replication was impaired by primary, but not secondary, rhino- and influenza virus infection. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 had no effect on the replication of these seasonal respiratory viruses. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 correlated better with immune response triggered by RV, IAV and IBV than the virus entry. Using neutralizing antibody against type I and III interferons, SARS-CoV-2 blockade in dual infections could be partly prevented. Altogether, these data suggested that SARS-CoV-2 interaction with seasonal respiratory viruses would be modulated by interferon induction and could impact SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology when circulation of other respiratory viruses is restored.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza B virus/physiology , Respiratory System/virology , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Coinfection/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/physiology
4.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294673

ABSTRACT

Summary Whether smoking exacerbates Coronavirus disease 2019 is still debated. Ex-vivo Infection of reconstituted epithelial tissues from smoker versus non-smoker donors suggested comparable susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in epithelia from both groups.

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