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1.
Trop Med Health ; 50(1): 4, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are effective and reliable public health interventions against viral outbreaks and pandemics. However, hesitancy regarding the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine is evident worldwide. Therefore, understanding vaccination-related behavior is critical in expanding the vaccine coverage to flatten the infection curve. This study explores the public perception regarding COVID-19 vaccination and identifies factors associated with vaccine hesitancy among the general adult populations in six Southeast Asian countries. METHODS: Using a snowball sampling approach, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study among 5260 participants in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam between February and May 2021. Binary logistic regression analysis with a backward conditional approach was applied to identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: Of the total, 50.6% were female, and the median age was 30 years (range: 15-83 years). The majority of the participants believed that vaccination effectively prevents and controls COVID-19 (81.2%), and 84.0% would accept COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. They agreed that health providers' advice (83.0%), vaccination convenience (75.6%), and vaccine costs (62.8%) are essential for people to decide whether to accept COVID-19 vaccines. About half (49.3%) expressed their hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccines. After adjustment for other covariates, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was significantly associated with age, residential area, education levels, employment status, and family economic status. Participants from Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam were significantly more likely to express hesitancy in receiving COVID-19 vaccines than those from Philippines. CONCLUSIONS: In general, participants in this multi-country study showed their optimistic perception of COVID-19 vaccines' effectiveness and willingness to receive them. However, about half of them still expressed their hesitancy in getting vaccinated. The hesitation was associated with several socioeconomic factors and varied by country. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination programs should consider these factors essential for increasing vaccine uptake in the populations.

2.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13: 100956, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597202

ABSTRACT

The immunization programs have been jeopardized all over the world due to the stay-at-home constraints imposed, to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This has directly or indirectly placed the global health care system in peril, resulting in an overlapping public health crisis. With this commentary, we aim to accentuate the need to reinforce vaccination in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in lieu of the intersecting COVID-19, measles, and yellow fever outbreak, besides, providing recommendations so as to help alleviate the situation.

3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-15, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592511

ABSTRACT

The Uttarakhand State, known for its Himalayan mountains, is a territory in Northern India that is extremely vulnerable to earthquakes, landslides, and floods. Therefore, due to the COVID-19 outbreak, currently, India is facing the dual challenge of containing a pandemic and responding to natural disasters. This situation can have a negative impact on the health and in the economic development of the region, leading to a long-lasting humanitarian crisis that can disrupt even more the already overburdened health service. In addition, it can pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population as it complicates physical distancing and other COVID-19 prevention measures. It is of utmost importance to analyse the impact of floods, landslides, and COVID-19 pandemic on the health system of the Uttarakhand State, and how these crises interact with each other.

4.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 98, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581980

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious disease that kills approximately 1.5 million people per year and is among the most frequent respiratory infections in developing countries. Morocco has made significant progress in the control and management of TB during the past 30 years thanks to its National Plan for Tuberculosis and the continuous support of national and international partners. While tremendous efforts were undertaken to tilt the balance against the COVID-19 pandemic, new challenges resurfaced with regard to long-standing health problems amongst which is TB. The spill-over effect of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted health service delivery globally, threatening to reverse years of progress made on the TB control front. In Morocco, this crisis highlighted deep shortcomings within the national health system and in the adopted approach to TB control. This article discusses national efforts to get back on track with regard to TB management, the multitude of challenges that co-emerged with the onset of COVID-19 and lays down key recommendations to implement in order to build back a TB control plan that is resilient in the face of health hazards.

5.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 101, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581978

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are the best chance to control the pandemic-unless leaders succumb to vaccine nationalism. Vaccine nationalism is a frequent recurrence, especially during a brand-new market distribution. The development of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines in such a short space of time is a testament to modern scientific abilities. It will also test the world's political will and moral commitment to end this pandemic. As desperate as the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccine nationalism is already setting a foundation for itself and is considered socially and economically counterproductive. Vaccine equity is not just a theoretical slogan, and it protects people worldwide from new vaccine-resistant variants. Understanding and anticipating the consequences is vital, and creating a global solution approach to avoid them. This article evaluates the common issues previously faced and the plausible ones during this pandemic. A few recommendations are made to warn and accentuate the reality of this dire matter.

6.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13: 100955, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588158

ABSTRACT

Meningitis is a severe infection and a major public health challenge. The meningitis outbreak which had resurfaced amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been further stressing the health care systems that are already overburdened with detecting, preventing, and treating the current coronavirus disease. The recent meningitis outbreak in the DRC has resulted in a high case fatality ratio of 50% - an extremely worrying concern. Robust strategies are hence needed to curb the spread of the disease amid the COVID-19 pandemic, to prevent further adverse health outcomes and to mitigate the compounding burden on the country's healthcare systems. Several measures such as vaccination campaigns, adherence to sanitation and hygiene, improved surveillance and diagnostic capabilities could help prevent future epidemics in the country.

7.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13: 100960, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588157

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic that initiated in Wuhan, China, has been an international public health emergency since January 2020. India has been battling a brutal COVID-19's second wave since April 2021. The healthcare system was struggling with a substantial increase in COVID-19 cases when the lack of necessary resources further aroused a major setback. Opportunistic fungal infections, specifically mucormycosis and candidiasis have become a pressing matter of concern. Recent cases of aspergillosis have also heightened public alarm. Hence, call for an immediate response to this public health crisis is the need of the hour by establishing countrywide surveillance, diagnostic, and management system, as well as public awareness to alleviate the burden of COVID-19 and fungal infections in India.

8.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13: 100920, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560163

ABSTRACT

In August 2021, the Marburg virus disease (MVD) outbreak was confirmed amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Republic of Guinea. This is the first time it is detected in Guinea and West Africa. Marburg virus is one of the world's most threatening diseases, causing severe haemorrhagic fever, with a case fatality rate of 90%. Currently, there are no vaccines and specific antiviral drugs for MVD. Technical teams and community health care workers that were set up as part of the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak that was declared over on June 19, 2021, are now redeployed to support governments response activities of the MVD outbreak in the country. The MVD is an added burden to the fragile healthcare systems that are already overburdened with multiple reoccurring epidemics and the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous epidermic strategies are needed to contain the spread of the disease, amid the COVID-19 pandemic, so the health care systems are not overwhelmed. This commentary discusses the available evidence regarding the epidemic of MVD in Guinea amid the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlights the efforts, challenges to be prioritized, and provides evidence-based recommendations.

10.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540412

ABSTRACT

With numbers of active COVID-19 cases in India falling in recent weeks and the healthcare system finally showing signs of coping with the mucormycosis epidemic, several new reports of COVID-19 cases linked to "white fungus" have emerged. This has led to rising concern with the potential to stretch the capacity of an already burdened healthcare system. Moreover, the implications of this disease in the COVID-19 population and its consequences on the health and socio-economic structure of the country have not been vastly studied. This commentary explores the need for government efforts in the context of containing candidiasis during the pandemic and provides key recommendations on combating this imminent public health challenge.

11.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6798-6802, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530182

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have been on the rise for the past decades. The impact of the viruses worsened amidst the pandemic burdening the already overwhelmed health care system in African countries. This article sheds light on how the coronavirus together with the already existing viral infections, some of which re-emerged, impacted the continent. The strategies in place such as immunization, education, will have to be strengthened in all African countries to reduce the burden. Furthermore, governments can further collaborate with other countries in creating guidelines to reduce co-infection of the diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512903

ABSTRACT

Afghanistan, a country challenged by war and conflicts, has been in a state of turmoil for several years. The prolonged suffering has brought many challenges to the country's inhabitants. Among these, food security is one important cause for concern. Food security occurs when people continuously have physical and economic access to adequate, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary requirements and food preferences for a functional and healthy life. Amid the pandemic, Afghanistan has witnessed a large increase in food shortages due to its dependence on neighboring countries. In light of current circumstances, food insecurity, coupled with political instability and the third wave of the COVID-19, have made it extremely hard for people to access daily provisions. Hence, people are left to navigate the COVID-19 pandemic with economic recession and poverty as the backdrop of the other health crises. To mitigate food security, international attempts are the required at this critical juncture. The aim of this article is to understand the causes leading to food insecurity and its implications in Afghanistan and to propose solutions that will improve the overall food security at the policy and implementation levels.

13.
Vaccine ; 39(43): 6341-6345, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510385

ABSTRACT

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is leading globally in many indicators for tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. This ranges from taking adequate preventive measures to the free vaccination drive and viable public health strategy. As of 18 August 2021, the UAE has significantly reduced the number of cases and successfully administered 17,454,250 doses. Furthermore, efforts and plans are underway to provide the third dose to high-risk people three months after completing the second dose and six months later to others. The UAE is considered one of the leaders globally for vaccinating "medically eligible" residents against COVID-19, with over 70% of the population currently fully vaccinated in the drive towards achieving herd immunity. The UAE's vaccination program is on track, covering a significant part of the population. The massive efforts of the National Vaccination Program's roll-out made by the UAE government and the various health authorities and stakeholders were vital for the general public's active participation in its success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Arab Emirates , Vaccination
14.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499589

ABSTRACT

Malaria has become a serious public health concern in Burundi. An outbreak that has the potential to evolve into an epidemic has eradicated nearly as many individuals as the Ebola crisis within the adjacent Democratic Republic of the Congo. The government's delay to announce a national crisis, increased breeding sites as a result of flooding, and the presence of multi-drug resistant malaria have exacerbated the burden. With a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic, economic complications, and overlap of symptoms between both diseases, these challenges are complex, but not unfamiliar. Organizations such as Médecins Sans Frontières have carried out spraying campaigns, and the government is actively mitigating efforts to handle the pandemic. That being said, there is still a need to enhance preventive measures such as increasing technological capacity and epidemiological surveillance to better withstand challenges.

16.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100878, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491793

ABSTRACT

In Pakistan, HIV has increased at an alarming rate in recent decades, and the death toll has risen. It is a public health challenge amidst the COVID-19 pandemic that is not being given due importance. The present article looks at the challenges and efforts being made to deal with HIV among children in Ratodero, Pakistan, and addresses measures that can be taken to control the disease in the child population epidemiologically.

18.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 83, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477478

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc in the world from last year, and any further insults like Zika virus will surely bring the apocalypse unto us. In July 2021, Zika began spreading in India, mainly in the state of Kerala. Zika infection resembles closely COVID-19 and other arboviral infections, which might lead to delayed and misdiagnosis, further leading to underreporting of cases. Some of the feared complications of Zika include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital Zika syndrome leading to microcephaly. Thus, Zika virus disease (ZVD) has significant public health and social impacts. Since the trifecta of infectious diseases (host, agent and environment) are all conducive to the spread of Zika in India, there is a huge risk that ZVD might become endemic in India, which is especially dangerous in the backdrop of this pandemic. This has to be stopped at all costs: the main aspects of which are public health measures, vector control and early diagnosis, especially in case of pregnant women. The diversion of healthcare resources for this pandemic has albeit made this difficult, but we must do our bit if we have to overcome this situation.

19.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 84, 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477477

ABSTRACT

India is home to the most significant number of tuberculosis (TB) cases around the globe. The COVID-19 crisis has deeply perturbed most of the essential TB services in India. Regulating TB is difficult in a densely populated country like India due to latent TB infection in millions of Indians, which can reactivate at any point in the future. Due to the ongoing pandemic, healthcare workers have been diverted to activities implemented for effective COVID-19 management, leaving a meager workforce to help deal with TB management. Integrating TB and COVID-19 to augment India's health outreach is the need of the hour to diminish the effect of the COVID-19 crisis on TB. Increasing overall testing capacity, active screening, implementation of strategies for easy identification of TB hotspots, and ensuring uninterrupted drug supply for treatment through heedful planning of local and regional distribution and transportation will especially help cater to the vulnerable population who are at a high risk of suffering from adverse outcomes of TB. Lessons learnt in the battle against COVID-19 can most definitely help in providing insights to fulfill the goal of eliminating TB from India.

20.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 14: 1427-1433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470711

ABSTRACT

Background: In the wake of coronavirus (COVID-19) global alert, people have begun to practice safety measures in order to reduce the exposure to life-threatening disease. The largest at risk population is undoubtedly the frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) who are using personal protective equipment (PPE), essentially face masks, to battle against this deadly virus. This study was conducted with the prime intention to reveal an association between face mask and acne and measure the prevalence of acne amongst HCWs amidst COVID-19 outbreak in Karachi. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify the type of mask generating acne, locate the common sites, assess the severity and establish an association of mask use with the skin type. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Medicare Cardiac and General Hospital, Jinnah Medical College Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and Jamal Noor Hospital located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 348 HCWs were interviewed, of which only 193 met the inclusion criteria. All information was recorded on a predesigned proforma and analyzed using SPSS 25.0. Results: Among 193 participants, acne was prevalent in 103 (53.4%) participants with maximum cases reported in female HCWs, and in doctors (p<0.05). Out of 73 HCWs using N-95 masks, 46 (44.7%) developed acne, with a p-value of 0.036. Skin type and past history of acne also yielded statistically significant results. Among all the skin types, HCWs with oily skin (64, 62.1%) were prone to face resurgence of acne or new-onset acne. The most common sites of eruption of acne were along the cheeks (45.1%) followed by the nose (40.9%). Majority of the population suffered from mild acne. Moderate and severe acne eruption was particularly observed in those wearing N-95 and surgical masks. Conclusion: The use of face masks is associated with high rates of acne eruption. Disseminating the guidelines and indications of World Health Organization (WHO) regarding proper use of mask, encouraging awareness among HCWs and following proper doffing and donning protocol as endorsed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will possibly minimize the adverse reactions.

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