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J Affect Disord ; 295: 173-182, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370555


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare self-reported changes on lifestyle behaviors during two phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, and to evaluate clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with lifestyles. METHODS: Two cross-sectional web surveys were conducted during lockdown (April 15-May 15, 2020) and seven months later (November 16-December 16, 2020). Lifestyle behaviors were self-reported by a multidimensional scale (SMILE-C). Two separate samples of respondents were analyzed. A multivariate regression model was performed to evaluate the association of SMILE-C scores with demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: The sample comprised, 3412 participants from the first survey (S1) and in the S1 and 3635 from the second (S2). SMILE-C score decreased across surveys (p < 0.001). The rates of positive screenings for depression and anxiety were similar between the surveys, whereas those for alcohol abuse decreased (p < 0.001). Most participants in S2 reported that their lifestyle had not changed compared to those before the pandemic. Variables independently associated with an unhealthier lifestyle were working as an essential worker, lower educational level, previous mental disease, worse self-rated health, totally/moderate changes on diet, sleep or social support, as well as positive screenings for alcohol abuse, anxiety and depression. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and recruitment by non-probabilistic methods limit inferring causality and the external validity of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Overall lifestyle worsened seven months after the lockdown in Spain. Several demographic and clinical factors were associated with lifestyle scores. The contribution of common mental disorders to unhealthier lifestyles should be considered in order to prevent the negative impact of the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Humans , Life Style , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335077


Few studies have used a multidimensional approach to describe lifestyle changes among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic or have included controls. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle behaviors and mental health of undergraduate students and compare them with an age and sex-matched control group. A cross-sectional web survey using snowball sampling was conducted several months after the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. A sample of 221 students was recruited. The main outcome was the total SMILE-C score. Students showed a better SMILE-C score than controls (79.8 + 8.1 vs. 77.2 + 8.3; p < 0.001), although these differences disappeared after controlling for covariates. While groups did not differ in the screenings of depression and alcohol abuse, students reported lower rates of anxiety (28.5% vs. 37.1%; p = 0.042). A lower number of cohabitants, poorer self-perceived health and positive screening for depression and anxiety, or for depression only were independently associated (p < 0.05) with unhealthier lifestyles in both groups. History of mental illness and financial difficulties were predictors of unhealthier lifestyles for students, whereas totally/moderate changes in substance abuse and stress management (p < 0.05) were predictors for the members of the control group. Several months after the pandemic, undergraduate students and other young adults had similar lifestyles.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Life Style , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Students , Young Adult
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254823, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318323


OBJECTIVE: Mechanical conditions of vehicles may play a determinant role in driving safety, the reason why vehicle periodical technical inspections (VTIs) are mandatory in many countries. However, the high number of drivers sanctioned for not complying with this regulation is surprisingly high, and there is not much evidence on what kind(s) of motives may explain this concerning panorama. This study aimed to identify the aspects that modulate the relationship between complying (or not) with VTI's standards in a nationwide sample of Spanish drivers. The study design also addressed the drivers' awareness regarding different risky behaviors while driving, depending on their sex and their crash record. METHODS: 1,100 Spanish drivers completed a survey on the aforementioned issues. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc adjustment was conducted to assess significant differences (p<0.05) in the study variables. RESULTS: Most of the surveyed drivers (99.18%) reported that they always comply with VTI's requirements. The main reasons to comply were related to compliance with traffic regulation and fear of penalties, while the reasons attributed to its incompliance are, instead, stated as involuntary. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study support the idea that more actions are needed to increase drivers' awareness of the relevance of VTIs for road safety, as well as warning them about the dangers of neglecting vehicle checking beyond merely punishing measures. For this reason and given the greater prevalence of the issue among younger segments of the driving population, it is suggested that more emphasis on the matter could be made during novice driver's training.

Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Automobile Driving/standards , Automobiles/standards , Humans , Professional Competence/standards , Risk-Taking , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires