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1.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-360586

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) immune response is almost exclusively derived from studies that examined blood. To gain insight in the pulmonary immune response we analysed BALF samples and paired blood samples from 17 severe COVID-19 patients. Macrophages and T cells were the most abundant cells in BALF. In the lungs, both CD4 and CD8 T cells were predominantly effector memory cells and expressed higher levels of the exhaustion marker PD-1 than in peripheral blood. Prolonged ICU stay associated with a reduced proportion of activated T cells in peripheral blood and even more so in BALF. T cell activation in blood, but not in BALF, was higher in fatal COVID-19 cases. Increased levels of inflammatory mediators were more pronounced in BALF than in plasma. In conclusion, the bronchoalveolar immune response in COVID-19 has a unique local profile that strongly differs from the immune profile in peripheral blood. SummaryThe bronchoalveolar immune response in severe COVID-19 strongly differs from the peripheral blood immune profile. Fatal COVID-19 associated with T cell activation blood, but not in BALF.

2.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-159202

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Understanding both the immunological processes providing specific immunity and potential immunopathology underlying the pathogenesis of this disease may provide valuable insights for potential therapeutic interventions. Here, we quantified SARS-CoV-2 specific immune responses in patients with different clinical courses. Compared to individuals with a mild clinical presentation, CD4+ T cell responses were qualitatively impaired in critically ill patients. Strikingly, however, in these patients the specific IgG antibody response was remarkably strong. The observed disparate T and B cell responses could be indicative of a deregulated immune response in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

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