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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847411

ABSTRACT

Rapid development and deployment of vaccines is crucial to control the continuously evolving COVID-19 pandemic. The placebo-controlled phase 3 efficacy trial is still the standard for authorizing vaccines in the majority of the world. However, due to a lack of eligible participants in parts of the world, this has not always been feasible. Recently, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration, following the consensus of the International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities (ICMRA), adopted the use of immunobridging studies as acceptable for authorizing COVID-19 vaccines in lieu of efficacy data. Here, we describe a study in which our candidate vaccine, MVC-COV1901, an adjuvanted protein subunit vaccine, has been granted emergency use authorization (EUA) in Taiwan based on a noninferiority immunobridging study. Immunogenicity results from the per protocol immunogenicity (PPI) subset (n = 903) from the MVC-COV1901 phase 2 trial were compared with results from 200 subjects who had received an adenovirus vector vaccine, AstraZeneca ChAdOx nCOV-19 (AZD1222), in a separate study. The lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio comparing MVC-COV1901 to AZD1222 was 3.4. The lower bound of the 95% CI of the sero-response rate was 95.5%. Both the GMT ratio and sero-response rate exceeded the criteria established by the Taiwan regulatory authority, leading to EUA approval of MVC-COV1901 in Taiwan.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329296

ABSTRACT

Background: Rapid development and deployment of vaccine is crucial to control the continuously evolving COVID-19 pandemic. Placebo-controlled phase 3 efficacy trial is still standard for authorizing vaccines in majority of the world. However, due to lack of cases or participants in parts of the world, this has not always been feasible. An alternative to efficacy trial is immunobridging, in which the immune response or correlates of protection of a vaccine candidate is compared against an approved vaccine. Here we describe a case study where our candidate vaccine, MVC-COV1901, has been granted for emergency use authorization (EUA) locally based on the non-inferiority immunobridging process. Methods The per protocol immunogenicity (PPI) subset from the MVC-COV1901 phase 2 trial was used for this study and consisted of 903 subjects who have received two doses of MVC-COV1901 as scheduled in the clinical trial. The comparator set of population consisted of 200 subjects of ≥ 20 years of age who were generally healthy, and have received two doses of AstraZeneca ChAdOx nCOV-19 (AZD1222) recruited from Taoyuan General Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare. Results MVC-COV1901 was shown to have a geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio lower bound 95% confidence internal (CI) of 3.4 against the comparator vaccine and a seroconversion rate of 95.5% at the 95% CI lower bound, which both exceeded the criteria set by the Taiwan regulatory authority for EUA approval. These results supported the EUA approval of MVC-COV1901 by the Taiwanese regulatory authority in July 2021. Following the consensus of the International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities (ICMRA), countries from the Access Consortium has recently adopted the use of immunobridging studies as acceptable for authorizing COVID-19 vaccines in lieu of efficacy data. Conclusion The data presented in the study showed that it is reasonably likely that the vaccine efficacy of MVC-COV1901 is similar or superior to that of AZ. Data could be used in support of further vaccine development and regulatory approval.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296594

ABSTRACT

Objectives To provide data on the immune response to COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV (PWH), MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing S-2P protein adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide, was assessed. Methods A total of 57 PWH of ≥ 20 years of age who are on stable antiretroviral therapy and with CD4 + T cell ≥ 350 cells/mm 3 and HIV viral load < 10 3 copies/ml were compared with 882 HIV-negative participants. Participants received 2 doses of MVC-COV1901 28 days apart. Safety and the immunogenicity were evaluated. Results No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded. Seroconversion rates (SCRs) of 100% and 99.8% were achieved in people living with HIV (PWH) and comparators, respectively, 28 days after second dose. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) against wild type SARS-CoV-2 virus were 136.62 IU/mL (WHO Standardized International Unit) (95% CI 114.3-163.3) and 440.41 IU/mL (95% CI 421.3-460.4), for PWH and control groups, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, BMI category, and comorbidity, and the adjusted GMT ratio of comparator/PWH was 3.22 (95% CI 2.6-4.1). A higher CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with a higher GMT (R=0.27, p=0.039). Conclusions MVC-COV1901 has shown robust safety but weaker immunogenicity responses in PWH. As a result, a third dose or booster doses of MVC-COV1901 may be appropriate for PWH.

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