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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-18, 2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991420

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed significant burden on healthcare systems. We compared Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) epidemiology before and during the pandemic across 71 hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. Using an interrupted time series analysis, we showed that CDI rates significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332809

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has severely impacted the training of health care professional students because of concerns of potential asymptomatic transmission to colleagues and vulnerable patients. From May 27th, 2020, to June 23rd 2021;at a time when B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.617.2 (delta) were the dominant circulating variants, PCR testing was conducted on 1,237 nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 457 asymptomatic health care professional students as they returned to their studies from across Canada to Kingston, ON, a low prevalence area during that period for COVID-19. Despite 46.7% of COVID-19 infections occurring in the 18–29 age group in Kingston, severe-acute-respiratory coronavirus-2 was not detected in any of the samples suggesting that negligible asymptomatic infection occurred in this group and that PCR testing in this setting may not be warranted as a screening tool.

3.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786506

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has severely impacted the training of health care professional students because of concerns of potential asymptomatic transmission to colleagues and vulnerable patients. From May 27th, 2020, to June 23rd 2021;at a time when B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.617.2 (delta) were the dominant circulating variants, PCR testing was conducted on 1,237 nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 457 asymptomatic health care professional students as they returned to their studies from across Canada to Kingston, ON, a low prevalence area during that period for COVID-19. Despite 46.7% of COVID-19 infections occurring in the 18–29 age group in Kingston, severe-acute-respiratory coronavirus-2 was not detected in any of the samples suggesting that negligible asymptomatic infection occurred in this group and that PCR testing in this setting may not be warranted as a screening tool.

4.
JAMMI: Journal of the Association of Medical Microbiology & Infectious Disease Canada ; 7(1):1-7, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1753324

ABSTRACT

We provide an update to the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada seasonal influenza foundation guideline on the use of antiviral drugs for influenza for the upcoming 2021–2022 influenza season in Canada. Peramivir and baloxavir marboxil were licensed in Canada in 2017 and 2020, respectively, but neither is currently marketed. Thus, this guidance continues to focus on further optimizing the use of oseltamivir and zanamivir. Important issues for this year include the implications of co-circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza viruses;the role of diagnostic testing in relation to impact on patient management;and dosing and administration recommendations for neuraminidase inhibitors for various at-risk age groups. Une mise à jour des lignes directrices de base d'AMMI Canada sur l'utilisation de médicaments antiviraux contre l'influenza au cours de la saison grippale 2021-2022 au Canada est présentée. Le péramivir et le baloxavir marboxil ont été homologués au Canada en 2017 et en 2020, respectivement, mais ni l'un ni l'autre n'est encore commercialisé. Les lignes directrices continuent donc d'être axées sur l'optimisation de l'oseltamivir et du zanamivir. Les enjeux importants cette année incluent les effets de la cocirculation du coronavirus 2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère et des virus de l'influenza, le rôle des tests diagnostiques sur la prise en charge des patients, de même que les recommandations en matière de posologie et d'administration des inhibiteurs de la neuraminidase dans divers groupes d'âge à risque.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3697, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084006

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid global spread of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates the importance of infectious disease surveillance, particularly during the early stages. Viral genomes can provide key insights into transmission chains and pathogenicity. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from thirty-two of the first SARS-CoV-2 positive cases (March 18-30) in Kingston Ontario, Canada. Viral genomes were sequenced using Ion Torrent (n = 24) and MinION (n = 27) sequencing platforms. SARS-CoV-2 genomes carried forty-six polymorphic sites including two missense and three synonymous variants in the spike protein gene. The D614G point mutation was the predominate viral strain in our cohort (92.6%). A heterozygous variant (C9994A) was detected by both sequencing platforms but filtered by the ARTIC network bioinformatic pipeline suggesting that heterozygous variants may be underreported in the SARS-CoV-2 literature. Phylogenetic analysis with 87,738 genomes in the GISAID database identified global origins and transmission events including multiple, international introductions as well as community spread. Reported travel history validated viral introduction and transmission inferred by phylogenetic analysis. Molecular epidemiology and evolutionary phylogenetics may complement contact tracing and help reconstruct transmission chains of emerging diseases. Earlier detection and screening in this way could improve the effectiveness of regional public health interventions to limit future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/virology , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Female , Genomics/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation, Missense , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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