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PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197384


INTRODUCTION: The evidence for vertical transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is not well established. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize emerging evidence on the vertical transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and CENTRAL. Likewise, a search for preprint publications was conducted using MedRxiv and Research Square. Studies that addressed vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (concept) among pregnant women infected by Covid-19 (population) in any setting (community, hospital, or home) in any country or context were considered for inclusion. Any types of studies or reports published between December 2019 and September 2020 addressing the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnant women and their newborn babies were included. Studies were screened for eligibility against the inclusion criteria for the review by two reviewers. RESULTS: We identified 51 studies reporting 336 newborns screened for COVID-19. From the 336 newborns screened for COVID-19, only 15 (4.4%) were positive for throat swab RT-PCR. All neonates with positive throat swab RT-PCR were delivered by cesarean section. Among neonates with throat swab SARS-CoV-2 positive only five (33.3%) had concomitant placenta, amniotic fluid, and cord blood samples tested, of which only one amniotic fluid sample is positive for RT PCR. Five neonates had elevated IgG and IgM but without intrauterine tissue tested. Four neonates had chest imaging suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSION: Currently there is not enough evidence on vertical virologic transmission of COVID-19 infection during the third trimester of pregnancy. Additionally, there is no evidence to support cesarean delivery, abstaining from breast feeding nor mother and infant separation. Further research involving an adequate sample size of breast milk, placenta, amniotic fluid, and cord blood to ascertain the possibility of vertical transmission and breast milk transfer is needed.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 11: 527-535, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999905


OBJECTIVE: To review available adaptive residency training approaches and management of the resident workforce in different residency programs amid COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Websites of different professional associations and international or national specialty accreditation institutions were searched. We looked for English studies (any form), reviews or editorials, perspectives, short or special communications, and position papers on residency education during the COVID-19 pandemic. PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were also searched using keywords. Two independent reviewers extracted data using a customized tool that was developed to record the key information relevant to the review question. The two authors resolved their difference in data extraction by discussion. RESULTS: We identified 13 documents reporting on residency education during pandemics. Three were articles, 5 short or special communications, and the rest editorials and perspectives. We divided the data obtained into six thematic areas: resident staffing, clinical education, surgical education, didactic teaching, research activity, and accreditation process. CONCLUSION: Residency programs must reorganize the resident's staffing and provide appropriate training to ensure the safety of residents during the pandemic. There are feasible adaptive approaches to maintaining residency training in the domains of didactic teaching, clinical education, and some research activities. Although some innovative virtual surgical skills training methods are implemented in limited surgical residency disciplines, their effectiveness is not well examined. Guidance and flexibility of the accreditation bodies in ensuring the competency of residents is one component of the adaptive response.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 771-776, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647799


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The objective of this research communication is to describe the general epidemic preparedness of Ethiopia using "Ready score" criterion that was developed by The ReadyScore criteria is used to determine whether a country is prepared to find, stop, and prevent epidemics. This set of criteria advises countries to take tailored measures based on their actual circumstances. Ethiopia's preparedness as assessed using the ReadyScore criteria is 52%, which indicates that much work is expected from the country. Based on the current situation of Ethiopia's epidemic preparedness, the currently increasing trend in the number of COVID-19 cases and the current situation of Ethiopia in relation to its preparedness to mitigate the pandemic of Covid-19, we recommend (a) mass communication and community mobilization, (b) social distancing measures, (c) sanitary measures, (d) maximizing case tracing and detection, (e) developing detailed operational guidelines on preventive measures across different businesses, organizational and community settings, (f) measures for sustaining essential health services and (g) proactive measures to sustain life during the lockdown.