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1.
Front Neurol ; 12: 794471, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581261

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mainly colonizes nasopharynx. In upper airways acute infections, e.g., the common cold, saline nasal irrigations have a significant efficacy in reducing symptoms. The present study aimed to test the efficacy of nasal lavages in upper airways symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A series of consecutive adult subjects who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from December 2020 to February 2021 performed daily nasal lavages with saline solution (Lavonase®-Purling, Lugo di Romagna, Italy) for 12 days, starting on the day after the SARS-CoV-2 positive swab. A control group included a historical series of patients who were infected in February-March 2020 and who did not perform lavages. An ad hoc questionnaire regarding symptoms was administered to each subjects at base-line and 10 days after diagnosis (i.e., on the same day of the control swab) in both cases and controls. Results: A total of 140 subjects were enrolled. 68 participants in the treatment group and 72 in the control group were included. 90% of respondents declared the lavages were simple to use and 70% declared they were satisfied. Symptoms of blocked nose, runny nose, or sneezing decreased by an average of 24.7% after the treatment. Blocked nose and sneezing increased in the same period of time in the control group. Ears and eyes symptoms, anosmia/ageusia symptoms, and infection duration (10.53 days in the treatment group and 10.48 days in the control group) didn't vary significantly among the two groups. Conclusion: Nasal lavages resulted to significantly decrease nasal symptoms in newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 patients. These devices proved to be well-tolerated and easy to be used. Further studies on a larger number of subjects are needed in order to possibly confirm these preliminary results.

2.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14829, 2021 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the CoronaVirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Questionnaire (COVID-Q), a novel symptom questionnaire specific for COVID-19 patients, to provide a comprehensive evaluation that may be helpful for physicians, and evaluate the questionnaire's performance in identifying subjects at higher risk of testing positive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive non-hospitalised adults who underwent nasopharyngeal-throat swab for severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection at Treviso Hospital in March 2020, were enrolled. Subjects were divided into positive (cases) and negative (controls). All subjects answered the COVID-Q. Patients not able to answer COVID-Q because of clinical conditions were excluded. Parallel Analysis and Principal Component Analysis identified items measuring the same dimension. The Item Response Theory (IRT)-based analyses evaluated the functioning of item categories, the presence of clusters of local dependence among items, item fit within the model and model fit to the data. RESULTS: Answers obtained from 230 cases (113 males; mean age 55 years, range 20-99) and 230 controls (61 males; mean age 46 years, range 21-89) were analysed. Six components were extracted with parallel analysis: asthenia, influenza-like symptoms, ear and nose symptoms, breathing issues, throat symptoms, and anosmia/ageusia. The final IRT models retained 27 items as significant for symptom assessment. The total questionnaire's score was significantly associated with positivity to the molecular test: subjects with multiple symptoms were more likely to be affected (P < .001). Older age, male gender presence of breathing issues and anosmia/ageusia were significantly related to positivity (P < .001). Comorbidities had not a significant association with the COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: COVID-Q could be validated since the evaluated aspects were overall significantly related to infection. The application of the questionnaire to clinical practice may help to identify subjects who are likely to be affected by COVID-19 and address them to a nasopharyngeal swab in order to achieve an early diagnosis.

3.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 6(4): 646-649, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328603

ABSTRACT

Objective: Nose and nasopharyngeal swab is the preferred and worldwide-accepted method to detect the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within the nose and nasopharynx. This method may be linked with possible difficulties, such as patient's discomfort or complications. This article shows a pilot study of SARS-CoV-2 detection with nasal and nasopharyngeal lavage fluids (level of evidence: 3). Methods: Nasal lavage fluid was collected from patients who were submitted to SARS-CoV-2 screening test, due to a preceding positive rapid antigen test. A control group was enrolled among health care professionals whose nasopharyngeal swab tested negative. Nasal lavages were performed using isotonic saline solution injected through a nasal fossa. Both lavage fluid and traditional nasopharyngeal swab were analyzed by real-time (RT) PCR and antigenic test. Results: A total of 49 positive subjects were enrolled in the study. Results of the analysis on lavages and nasopharyngeal swabs were concordant for 48 cases, regardless of the antigenic and molecular test performed. RT-PCR resulted weakly positive at swab in one case and negative at lavage fluid. Among the control group (44 subjects), nasopharyngeal swab and lavage fluid analyses returned a negative result. Sensitivity of the molecular test based on nasal lavage fluid, compared to traditional nasal swab, was 97.7%, specificity was 100%, and accuracy was 98.9%, with high agreement (Cohen's κ, 0.978). Conclusion: Nasal and nasopharyngeal lavages resulted to be highly reliable and well tolerated. A larger series is needed to confirm these results. This approach may potentially represent a valid alternative to the traditional swab method in selected cases. Level of Evidence: 3.

4.
J Dr Nurs Pract ; 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory infection Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has spread all over the world since December 2019. Treatment of the syndrome represents an important challenge for all physicians. Spread prevention relies on a correct diagnosis which is performed with nasopharyngeal swabs. OBJECTIVE: To describe the proper execution of the swab with a few simple steps. METHODS: Figures and video recording. RESULTS: A few simple steps are presented within this paper in order to perform easily nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-Cov-2 diagnosis and for other possible infectious diseases of the airways tract. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR NURSING: Nasopharyngeal swab may be performed in an easier way than usually thought. This method may also be used for any other microorganism detection. By following simple steps, a correct diagnosis can easily be obtained.

5.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(2): 101-107, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241350

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present with a wide range of symptoms. In this paper, a detailed characterisation of mild-to-moderate ear, nose nd throat (ENT) symptoms is presented with the aim of recognising the disease early to help reduce further spread and progression. Methods: A total of 230 cases testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 134 negative controls were recruited for a case-control analysis. Symptoms were analysed using the Acute Respiratory Tract Infections Questionnaire, while other symptoms were investigated by ad hoc questions. Results: Among the study samples (n = 364), 149 were males and 215 were females with age ranging from 20 to 89 years (mean 52.3). Four main groups of symptoms were obtained: influenza-like symptoms, ENT-symptoms, breathing issues and asthenia-related symptoms, representing 72%, 69%, 64% and 53% of overall referred clinical manifestations, respectively. ENT symptoms, breathing issues and influenza-like symptoms were associated with positivity to SARS-CoV-2, whereas asthenia-related symptoms did not show a significant association with SARS-CoV-2 infection after controlling for other symptoms, comorbidities and demographic characteristics. Conclusions: ENT symptoms are equally represented with influenza-like ones as presenting symptoms of COVID-19. Patients with ENT symptoms should be investigated for early identification and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(3): 197-205, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222316

ABSTRACT

Objective: Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue are thought to influence the manifestations of COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether a previous history of tonsillectomy, as a surrogate indicator of a dysfunctional pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue, could predict the presentation and course of COVID-19. Methods: Multicentric cross-sectional observational study involving seven hospitals in Northern and Central Italy. Data on the clinical course and signs and symptoms of the infection were collected from 779 adults who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and analysed in relation to previous tonsillectomy, together with demographic and anamnestic data. Results: Patients with previous tonsillectomy showed a greater risk of fever, temperature higher than 39°C, chills and malaise. No significant differences in hospital admissions were found. Conclusions: A previous history of tonsillectomy, as a surrogate indicator of immunological dysfunction of the pharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue, could predict a more intense systemic manifestation of COVID-19. These results could provide a simple clinical marker to discriminate suspected carriers and to delineate more precise prognostic models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Palatine Tonsil , Tonsillectomy/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Acta Biomed ; 92(1): e2021105, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122048

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV2 has stressed health care systems worldwide. The high volume of patients, combined with an increased need for intensive care and potential transmission, has forced reorganization of hospitals and care delivery models. In this article, are presented approaches to minimize risk to Otolaryngologists during their patients infected with COVID-19 care. We performed a narrative literature review among PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science electronic databases, searching for studies on SARS-CoV2 and Risk Management. Standard operating procedures have been adapted both for facilities and for health care workers, including the development of well-defined and segregated patient care areas for treating those affected by COVID-19. Personal protective equipment (PPEs) availability and adequate healthcare providers training on their use should be ensured. Preventive measures are especially important in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, as the exposure to saliva suspensions, droplets and aerosols are increased in the upper aero-digestive tract routine examination. Morever, the frequent invasive procedures, such as laryngoscopy, intubation or tracheotomy placement and care, represent a high risk of contracting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Otolaryngologists , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Tracheostomy
8.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080838

ABSTRACT

This study prospectively assessed the 6-month prevalence of self-reported and psychophysically measured olfactory dysfunction in subjects with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. Self-reported smell or taste impairment was prospectively evaluated by SNOT-22 at diagnosis, 4-week, 8-week, and 6-month. At 6 months from the diagnosis, psychophysical evaluation of olfactory function was also performed using the 34-item culturally adapted University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (CA-UPSIT). 145 completed both the 6-month subjective and psychophysical olfactory evaluation. According to CA-UPSIT, 87 subjects (60.0%) exhibited some smell dysfunction, with 10 patients being anosmic (6.9%) and seven being severely microsmic (4.8%). At the time CA-UPSIT was administered, a weak correlation was observed between the self-reported alteration of the sense of smell or taste and olfactory test scores (Spearman's r = -0.26). Among 112 patients who self-reported normal sense of smell at last follow-up, CA-UPSIT revealed normal smell in 46 (41.1%), mild microsmia in 46 (41.1%), moderate microsmia in 11 (9.8%), severe microsmia in 3 (2.3%), and anosmia in 6 (5.4%) patients; however, of those patients self-reporting normal smell but who were found to have hypofunction on testing, 62 out of 66 had a self-reported reduction in sense of smell or taste at an earlier time point. Despite most patients report a subjectively normal sense of smell, we observed a high percentage of persistent smell dysfunction at 6 months from the diagnosis of syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, with 11.7% of patients being anosmic or severely microsmic. These data highlight a significant long-term rate of smell alteration in patients with previous SARS-COV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Psychophysics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Smell , Taste
10.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 146(8): 729-732, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624510

ABSTRACT

Importance: An altered sense of smell and taste has been reported to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the evolution of these symptoms during the course of the disease is important to identify patients with persistent loss of smell or taste and estimate the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on the burden of olfactory and gustative dysfunctions. Objective: To evaluate the evolution of the loss of sense of smell and taste in a case series of mildly symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional survey-based study included 202 mildly symptomatic adults (≥18 years) consecutively assessed at Treviso Regional Hospital, Italy, between March 19 and March 22, 2020, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal and throat swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of altered sense of smell and taste at follow-up and their variation from baseline. Results: Of 202 patients completing the survey at baseline, 187 (92.6%) also completed the follow-up survey (103 [55.1%] women; median age, 56 years). The evaluation of the evolution of altered sense of smell or taste in the 113 patients reporting sudden onset of these symptoms at baseline showed that 55 patients (48.7%; 95% CI, 39.2-58.3) reported complete resolution of smell or taste impairment, 46 (40.7%; 95% CI, 31.6-50.4) reported an improvement in the severity, and only 12 (10.6%; 95% CI, 5.6-17.8) reported the symptom was unchanged or worse. Persistent loss of smell or taste was not associated with persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions and Relevance: At 4 weeks from the onset, 89% of the SARS-CoV-2-positive mildly symptomatic patients who had had a sudden onset of altered sense of smell or taste experienced a complete resolution or improvement of these symptoms. Persistent loss of smell or taste was not associated with persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
11.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(9): 2637-2640, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343393

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of smell or taste impairment in household contacts of mildly symptomatic home-isolated SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on ad hoc questions. RESULTS: Of 214 mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients managed at home under self-isolation, 179 reported to have at least one household contact, with the total number of no study participants contacts being 296. Among 175 household contacts not tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 67 (38.3%) had SARS-CoV-2 compatible symptoms, 39 (22.3%) had loss of smell or taste with 7 (4.0%) having loss of smell or taste in the absence of other symptoms. The prevalence of smell or taste impairment was 1.5% in patients tested negative compared to 63.0% of those tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Smell or taste impairment are quite common in not-tested household contacts of mildly symptomatic home-isolated SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. This should be taken into account when estimating the burden of loss of sense of smell and taste during COVID-19 pandemic, and further highlights the value of loss of sense of smell and taste as a marker of infection.


Subject(s)
Dysgeusia/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste/physiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Family , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology
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