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1.
Vaccine ; 40(18): 2540-2545, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867851

ABSTRACT

We estimated the effectiveness of Comirnaty and Vaxzevria vaccines among 371,423 residents in Lazio Region (Italy) vaccinated since 27/12/2020, and followed until diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection or 25/4/2021, whichever came first. By the end of follow-up most of the Comirnaty-cohort (60%) had received the second dose at recommended time of 21 days (98%), while the Vaxzevria-cohort had received only one dose. Adjusted hazard ratios of SARS-CoV-2 infection at weekly intervals since the first dose were estimated through a Cox regression model using 0-13 days as reference time-interval. An increase in effectiveness with increasing time since administration was observed for Comirnaty (five-weeks = 81%, 95 %CI 71-88%; three-months = 94%, 95 %CI 84-98%). One dose of Vaxzevria showed an effectiveness of 63% (95 %CI 25-82%) after 7 weeks, although further analyses are needed after complete vaccination with two doses. These results could support the ongoing vaccination campaign by reinforcing evidence-based communication aimed at reducing vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Euro Surveill ; 27(20)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862542

ABSTRACT

We explored the risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 reinfections in Italy between August 2021 and March 2022. Regardless of the prevalent virus variant, being unvaccinated was the most relevant risk factor for reinfection. The risk of reinfection increased almost 18-fold following emergence of the Omicron variant compared with Delta. A severe first SARS-CoV-2 infection and age over 60 years were significant risk factors for severe reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Reinfection
3.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; : 1-11, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The waning of the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccines and timing of booster doses are debated. METHODS: Population-based cohort study in the largest Health-Authority of Lazio region, Italy, on 946,156 residents aged 12+ (study period: 1 January 2021-10 January 2022). Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against any SARS-CoV-2 infection (symptomatic or asymptomatic) was estimated through multivariable negative-binomial models using unvaccinated person-time as a reference. RESULTS: The primary vaccination cycle was completed by 81% of residents; of these, 45% received a booster dose. Vaccine coverages were lower for foreigners, and people living in deprived areas, families with children aged 0-11, and households size 1 or 6+. Overall, VE waned from 71% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 70-73%) 1 month after the second dose to 43% (CI 41-45%) after 4 months and 24% (CI 21-27%) after 6 months, especially in the elderly aged 70+. We observed a prompt restore of VE 15-19 days after the booster dose (69%, CI 67-70%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the recommendation of a booster dose 4 months after completion of the primary cycle, giving priority to elderly and fragile individuals. The lower vaccine coverage among social disadvantaged subgroups suggests the need of targeted communication and interventions.

4.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; : 1-8, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consolidated information on the effectiveness of COVID-19 booster vaccination in Europe are scarce. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the effectiveness of a booster dose of an mRNA vaccine against any SARS-CoV-2 infection (symptomatic or asymptomatic) and severe COVID-19 (hospitalization or death) after over two months from administration among priority target groups (n = 18,524,568) during predominant circulation of the Delta variant in Italy (July-December 2021). RESULTS: Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and, to a lesser extent, against severe COVID-19, among people ≥60 years and other high-risk groups (i.e. healthcare workers, residents in long-term-care facilities, and persons with comorbidities or immunocompromised), peaked in the time-interval 3-13 weeks (VE against infection = 67.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 62.5-71.3; VE against severe disease = 89.5%, 95% CI: 86.1-92.0) and then declined, waning 26 weeks after full primary vaccination (VE against infection = 12.2%, 95% CI: -4.7-26.4; VE against severe disease = 65.3%, 95% CI: 50.3-75.8). After 3-10 weeks from the administration of a booster dose, VE against infection and severe disease increased to 76.1% (95% CI: 70.4-80.7) and 93.0% (95% CI: 90.2-95.0), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the ongoing vaccination campaign in Italy, where the administration of a booster dose four months after completion of primary vaccination is recommended.

5.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 58(1): 25-33, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761028

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on all-cause mortality in Italy during the first wave of the epidemic, taking into consideration the geographical heterogeneity of the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: This study is a retrospective, population-based cohort study using national statistics throughout Italy. Survival analysis was applied to data aggregated by day of death, age groups, sex, and Italian administrative units (107 provinces). We applied Cox models to estimate the relative hazards (RH) of excess mortality, comparing all-cause deaths in 2020 with the expected deaths from all causes in the same time period. The RH of excess deaths was estimated in areas with a high, moderate, and low spread of COVID-19. We reported the estimate also restricting the analysis to the period of March-April 2020 (first peak of the epidemic). RESULTS: The study population consisted of 57,204,501 individuals living in Italy as of January 1, 2020. The number of excess deaths was 36,445, which accounts for 13.4% of excess mortalities from all causes during January-May 2020 (i.e., RH = 1.134; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.129-1.140). In the macro-area with a relatively higher spread of COVID-19 (i.e., incidence rate, IR): 450-1,610 cases per 100,000 residents), the RH of excess deaths was 1.375 (95% CI: 1.364-1.386). In the area with a relatively moderate spread of COVID-19 (i.e., IR: 150-449 cases) it was 1.049 (95% CI: 1.038-1.060). In the area with a relatively lower spread of COVID-19 (i.e., IR: 30-149 cases), it was 0.967 (95% CI: 0.959-0.976). Between March and April (peak months of the first wave of the epidemic in Italy), we estimated an excess mortality from all causes of 43.5%. The RH of all-cause mortality for increments of 500 cases per 100,000 residents was 1.352 (95% CI: 1.346-1.359), corresponding to an increase of about 35%. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis, making use of a population-based cohort model, estimated all-cause excess mortality in Italy taking account of both time period and of COVID-19 geographical spread. The study highlights the importance of a temporal/geographic framework in analyzing the risk of COVID-19-epidemy related mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
6.
BMJ ; 376: e069052, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe covid-19 at different time after vaccination. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Italy, 27 December 2020 to 7 November 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 33 250 344 people aged ≥16 years who received a first dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine and did not have a previous diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe covid-19 (admission to hospital or death). Data were divided by weekly time intervals after vaccination. Incidence rate ratios at different time intervals were estimated by multilevel negative binomial models with robust variance estimator. Sex, age group, brand of vaccine, priority risk category, and regional weekly incidence in the general population were included as covariates. Geographic region was included as a random effect. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was calculated as (1-IRR)×100, where IRR=incidence rate ratio, with the time interval 0-14 days after the first dose of vaccine as the reference. RESULTS: During the epidemic phase when the delta variant was the predominant strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly decreased (P<0.001) from 82% (95% confidence interval 80% to 84%) at 3-4 weeks after the second dose of vaccine to 33% (27% to 39%) at 27-30 weeks after the second dose. In the same time intervals, vaccine effectiveness against severe covid-19 also decreased (P<0.001), although to a lesser extent, from 96% (95% to 97%) to 80% (76% to 83%). High risk people (vaccine effectiveness -6%, -28% to 12%), those aged ≥80 years (11%, -15% to 31%), and those aged 60-79 years (2%, -11% to 14%) did not seem to be protected against infection at 27-30 weeks after the second dose of vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the vaccination campaigns targeting high risk people, those aged ≥60 years, and healthcare workers to receive a booster dose of vaccine six months after the primary vaccination cycle. The results also suggest that timing the booster dose earlier than six months after the primary vaccination cycle and extending the offer of the booster dose to the wider eligible population might be warranted.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , /administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755679

ABSTRACT

We estimated the effectiveness of Comirnaty and Vaxzevria vaccines among 371,423 residents in Lazio Region (Italy) vaccinated since 27/12/2020, and followed until diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection or 25/4/2021, whichever came first. By the end of follow-up most of the Comirnaty-cohort (60%) had received the second dose at recommended time of 21 days (98%), while the Vaxzevria-cohort had received only one dose. Adjusted hazard ratios of SARS-CoV-2 infection at weekly intervals since the first dose were estimated through a Cox regression model using 0-13 days as reference time-interval. An increase in effectiveness with increasing time since administration was observed for Comirnaty (five-weeks=81%, 95%CI 71-88%;three-months=94%, 95%CI 84-98%). One dose of Vaxzevria showed an effectiveness of 63% (95%CI 25-82%) after 7 weeks, although further analyses are needed after complete vaccination with two doses. These results could support the ongoing vaccination campaign by reinforcing evidence-based communication aimed at reducing vaccine hesitancy.

8.
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita ; 57(4):272-285, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1733123

ABSTRACT

Introduction. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women during the first pandemic wave in Italy, and to describe COVID-19 disease characteristics and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Materials and methods. National population-based prospective cohort study collecting information on women with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, confirmed within 7 days from hospital admission. Results. The national SARS-CoV-2 rate was 6.04 per 1,000 births (95% CI 5.62-6.49) among pregnant women and 7.54 (95% CI 7.47-7.61) among women in reproductive age. 72.1% of the cohort developed mild COVID-19 disease without pneumonia nor need for ventilatory support. Severe disease was significantly associated with women’s previous comorbidities (OR 2.55;95% CI 0.98-6.90), obesity (OR 4.76;95% CI 1.79-12.66) and citizenship from High Migration Pressure Countries (OR 3.43;95% CI 1.27-9.25). Conclusions. During the first pandemic wave in Italy, the SARS-CoV-2 rate among pregnant women was lower compared to that detected among women of reproductive age, and risks of severe COVID-19 disease and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes were rare.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316625

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association between deprivation and COVID-19 outcomes in Italy during pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown periods. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: All municipalities in Italy with less than 50,000 population.Participants: 38,534,169 citizens and 222,875 COVID-19 cases reported to the Italian epidemiological surveillance were assigned to quintiles based on the deprivation index of their municipality of residence.Interventions: The COVID-19 pandemic during pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown from the 20th of February to the 15th of October of 2020.Main outcome measures: Multilevel negative binomial regression models, adjusting for age, sex, population-density and region of residence were conducted to evaluate the association between deprivation and COVID-19 incidence, case-hospitalisation rate and case-fatality. The association measure was the rate ratio. Results: During pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in the most deprived quintile with respect to the least deprived quintile were 1.17 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.41), 1.14 (1.03 to 1.27) and 1.47 (1.32 to 1.63), respectively. In those three periods, the case-hospitalization IRR were 0.68 (0.51 to 0.92), 0.89 (0.72 to 1.11) and 0.99 (0.81 to 1.22) and the case-fatality IRR were 0.92 (0.75 to 1.13), 0.95 (0.85 to 1.07) and 1.02 (0.73 to 1.41), respectively. Conclusions: During lockdown and post-lockdown, but not during pre-lockdown, a higher incidence of cases was observed in the most deprived municipalities compared with the least deprived ones. No differences in case-hospitalisation and case-fatality according to deprivation were observed in any period under study.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308578

ABSTRACT

In 2020, countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic implemented various non-pharmaceutical interventions to contrast the spread of the virus and its impact on their healthcare systems and economies. Using Italian data at different geographic scales, we investigate the relationship between human mobility, which subsumes many facets of the population's response to the changing situation, and the spread of COVID-19. Leveraging mobile phone data from February through September 2020, we find a striking relationship between the decrease in mobility flows and the net reproduction number. We find that the time needed to switch off mobility and bring the net reproduction number below the critical threshold of 1 is about one week. Moreover, we observe a strong relationship between the number of days spent above such threshold before the lockdown-induced drop in mobility flows and the total number of infections per 100k inhabitants. Estimating the statistical effect of mobility flows on the net reproduction number over time, we document a 2-week lag positive association, strong in March and April, and weaker but still significant in June. Our study demonstrates the value of big mobility data to monitor the epidemic and inform control interventions during its unfolding.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311797

ABSTRACT

On March 10, 2020, Italy imposed a national lockdown to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Here we estimate that, fourteen days after the implementation of the strategy, the net reproduction number has dropped below the epidemic threshold - estimated range 0.4-0.7. Our findings provide a timeline of the effectiveness of the implemented lockdown, which is relevant for a large number of countries that followed Italy in enforcing similar measures.

12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294699

ABSTRACT

We assessed the impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers (HCWs) from data on 2.9 million cases reported from nine countries in the EU/EEA. Compared to non-HCWs, HCWs had a higher adjusted risk of hospitalization (IRR 3.0 [95% CI 2.2-4.0]), but not death (IRR 0.9, 95% CI 0.4-2.0). Article Summary Line Healthcare workers are hospitalized more frequently than non-healthcare workers when adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities.

13.
Euro Surveill ; 26(47)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538333

ABSTRACT

We assessed the impact of COVID-19 vaccination in Italy, by estimating numbers of averted COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, ICU admissions and deaths between January and September 2021, by age group and geographical macro areas. Timing and speed of vaccination programme implementation varied slightly between geographical areas, particularly for older adults. We estimated that 445,193 (17% of expected; range: 331,059-616,054) cases, 79,152 (32%; range: 53,209-148,756) hospitalisations, 9,839 ICU admissions (29%; range: 6,434-16,276) and 22,067 (38%; range: 13,571-48,026) deaths were prevented by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
Atmosphere ; 12(9):1174, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1438496

ABSTRACT

Intensive care units (ICUs) are special areas in hospitals for patients with severe and life-threatening diseases. ICUs are of several categories, such as neonatal ICUs, cardiac ICUs, neurological ICUs, surgical ICUs, etc. The ICUs’ patients may show a high susceptibility for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) depending on underlying disease, duration of stay and treatment. ICUs are considered potential reservoirs for (opportunistic) pathogenic microbial strains and the risk of acquiring infection in these hospital environments is higher than in others. Several studies show the role of inanimate surface and equipment contamination in the transmission of pathogens to ICU patients. The aim of this study is to describe the results of 124 sampling campaigns performed during 12 years of microbiological surveillance of five ICUs of different categories, for an overall number of 714 samples (232 from air and 482 from surface), to analyze their trends and to elaborate suggestions to improve ICUs’ environmental quality and patients’ safety.

15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 669209, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337690

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 dramatically influenced mortality worldwide, in Italy as well, the first European country to experience the Sars-Cov2 epidemic. Many countries reported a two-wave pattern of COVID-19 deaths; however, studies comparing the two waves are limited. The objective of the study was to compare all-cause excess mortality between the two waves that occurred during the year 2020 using nationwide data. All-cause excess mortalities were estimated using negative binomial models with time modeled by quadratic splines. The models were also applied to estimate all-cause excess deaths "not directly attributable to COVD-19", i.e., without a previous COVID-19 diagnosis. During the first wave (25th February-31st May), we estimated 52,437 excess deaths (95% CI: 49,213-55,863) and 50,979 (95% CI: 50,333-51,425) during the second phase (10th October-31st December), corresponding to percentage 34.8% (95% CI: 33.8%-35.8%) in the second wave and 31.0% (95%CI: 27.2%-35.4%) in the first. During both waves, all-cause excess deaths percentages were higher in northern regions (59.1% during the first and 42.2% in the second wave), with a significant increase in the rest of Italy (from 6.7% to 27.1%) during the second wave. Males and those aged 80 or over were the most hit groups with an increase in both during the second wave. Excess deaths not directly attributable to COVID-19 decreased during the second phase with respect to the first phase, from 10.8% (95% CI: 9.5%-12.4%) to 7.7% (95% CI: 7.5%-7.9%), respectively. The percentage increase in excess deaths from all causes suggests in Italy a different impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the second wave in 2020. The decrease in excess deaths not directly attributable to COVID-19 may indicate an improvement in the preparedness of the Italian health care services during this second wave, in the detection of COVID-19 diagnoses and/or clinical practice toward the other severe diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Europe , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Health Place ; 71: 102642, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330835

ABSTRACT

The objective was to investigate the association between deprivation and COVID-19 outcomes in Italy during pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown periods using a retrospective cohort study with 38,534,169 citizens and 222,875 COVID-19 cases. Multilevel negative binomial regression models, adjusting for age, sex, population-density and region of residence were conducted to evaluate the association between area-level deprivation and COVID-19 incidence, case-hospitalisation rate and case-fatality. During lockdown and post-lockdown, but not during pre-lockdown, higher incidence of cases was observed in the most deprived municipalities compared with the least deprived ones. No differences in case-hospitalisation and case-fatality according to deprivation were observed in any period under study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4570, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328847

ABSTRACT

To counter the second COVID-19 wave in autumn 2020, the Italian government introduced a system of physical distancing measures organized in progressively restrictive tiers (coded as yellow, orange, and red) imposed on a regional basis according to real-time epidemiological risk assessments. We leverage the data from the Italian COVID-19 integrated surveillance system and publicly available mobility data to evaluate the impact of the three-tiered regional restriction system on human activities, SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility and hospitalization burden in Italy. The individuals' attendance to locations outside the residential settings was progressively reduced with tiers, but less than during the national lockdown against the first COVID-19 wave in the spring. The reproduction number R(t) decreased below the epidemic threshold in 85 out of 107 provinces after the introduction of the tier system, reaching average values of about 0.95-1.02 in the yellow tier, 0.80-0.93 in the orange tier and 0.74-0.83 in the red tier. We estimate that the reduced transmissibility resulted in averting about 36% of the hospitalizations between November 6 and November 25, 2020. These results are instrumental to inform public health efforts aimed at preventing future resurgence of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317265

ABSTRACT

To investigate the association of the 2019-2020 influenza vaccine with prognosis of patients positive for SARS-CoV-2A, a large multi-database cohort study was conducted in four Italian regions (i.e., Lazio, Lombardy, Veneto, and Tuscany) and the Reggio Emilia province (Emilia-Romagna). More than 21 million adults were residing in the study area (42% of the population). We included 115,945 COVID-19 cases diagnosed during the first wave of the pandemic (February-May, 2020); 34.6% of these had been vaccinated against influenza. Three outcomes were considered: hospitalization, death, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission/death. The adjusted relative risk (RR) of being hospitalized in the vaccinated group when compared with the non-vaccinated group was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.86-0.88). This reduction in risk was not confirmed for death (RR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06), or for the combined outcome of ICU admission or death. In conclusion, our study, conducted on the vast majority of the population during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy, showed a 13% statistically significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization in some geographical areas and in the younger population. No impact of seasonal influenza vaccination on COVID-19 prognosis in terms of death and death or ICU admission was estimated.

19.
Vaccine ; 39(34): 4788-4792, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301034

ABSTRACT

In Italy, the COVID-19 vaccination campaign started in December 2020 with the vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW). To analyse the real-life impact that vaccination is having on this population group, we measured the association between week of diagnosis and HCW status using log-binomial regression. By the week 22-28 March, we observed a 74% reduction (PPR 0.26; 95% CI 0.22-0.29) in the proportion of cases reported as HCW and 81% reduction in the proportion of symptomatic cases reported as HCW, compared with the week with the lowest proportion of cases among HCWs prior to the vaccination campaign (31 August-7 September). The reduction, both in relative and absolute terms, of COVID-19 cases in HCWs that started around 30 days after the start of the vaccination campaign suggest that COVID-19 vaccines are being effective in preventing infection in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Euro Surveill ; 26(25)2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288763

ABSTRACT

To assess the real-world impact of vaccines on COVID-19 related outcomes, we analysed data from over 7 million recipients of at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose in Italy. Taking 0-14 days post-first dose as reference, the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk subsequently decreased, reaching a reduction by 78% (incidence rate ratios (IRR): 0.22; 95% CI: 0.21-0.24) 43-49 days post-first dose. Similarly, hospitalisation and death risks decreased, with 89% (IRR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.09-0.15) and 93% (IRR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.04-0.11) reductions 36-42 days post-first dose. Our results support ongoing vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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