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1.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-429211

ABSTRACT

Non-integrative, non-cytopathic and non-inflammatory lentiviral vectors are particularly suitable for mucosal vaccination and recently emerge as a promising strategy to elicit sterilizing prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 in preclinical animal models. Here, we demonstrate that a single intranasal administration of a lentiviral vector encoding a prefusion form of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein induces full protection of respiratory tracts and totally avoids pulmonary inflammation in the susceptible hamster model. More importantly, we generated a new transgenic mouse strain, expressing the human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2, with unprecedent brain permissibility to SARS-CoV-2 replication and developing a lethal disease in <4 days post infection. Even though the neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 is now well established, so far other vaccine strategies under development have not taken into the account the protection of central nervous system. Using our highly stringent transgenic model, we demonstrated that an intranasal booster immunization with the developed lentiviral vaccine candidate achieves full protection of both respiratory tracts and brain against SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20219030

ABSTRACT

Although the COVID-19 pandemic peaked in March/April 2020 in France, the prevalence of infection is barely known. Herein, we assessed using high-throughput methods the serological response against the SARS-CoV-2 virus of 1847 participants working in one institution in Paris. In May-July 2020, 11% (95% CI: 9.7-12.6) of serums were positive for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 N and S proteins and 9.5% (CI:8.2-11.0) were pseudo-neutralizer. The prevalence of immunization was 11.6% (CI:10.2-13.2) considering positivity in at least one assays. In 5% (CI:3.9-7.1) of RT-qPCR positive individuals, no systemic IgGs were detected. Among immune individuals, 21% had been asymptomatic. Anosmia and ageusia occurred in 52% of the IgG-positive individuals and in 3% of the negative ones. In contrast, 30% of the anosmia-ageusia cases were seronegative suggesting that the true prevalence of infection may reach 16.6%. In sera obtained 4-8 weeks after the first sampling anti-N and anti-S IgG titers and pseudo-neutralization activity declined by 31%, 17% and 53%, respectively with half-life of 35, 87 and 28 days, respectively. The population studied is representative of active workers in Paris. The short lifespan of the serological systemic responses suggests an underestimation the true prevalence of infection.

3.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-214049

ABSTRACT

To develop a vaccine candidate against COVID-19, we generated a Lentiviral Vector (LV), eliciting neutralizing antibodies against the Spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Systemic vaccination by this vector in mice, in which the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor hACE2 has been induced by transduction of respiratory tract cells by an adenoviral vector, conferred only partial protection, despite an intense serum neutralizing activity. However, targeting the immune response to the respiratory tract through an intranasal boost with this LV resulted in > 3 log10 decrease in the lung viral loads and avoided local inflammation. Moreover, both integrative and non-integrative LV platforms displayed a strong vaccine efficacy and inhibited lung deleterious injury in golden hamsters, which are naturally permissive to SARS-CoV-2 replication and restitute the human COVID-19 physiopathology. Our results provide evidence of marked prophylactic effects of the LV-based vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and designate the intranasal immunization as a powerful approach against COVID-19. HighlightsA lentiviral vector encoding for Spike predicts a promising COVID-19 vaccine Targeting the immune response to the upper respiratory tract is key to protection Intranasal vaccination induces protective mucosal immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Lung anti-Spike IgA responses correlate with protection and reduced inflammation

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