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J Neurol ; 268(10): 3549-3560, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092677


BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, several cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. METHODS: Consecutive patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as clinical and radiological characteristics of CVST, were reported from three teaching hospitals in the South West, North West, and the center of Iran between June and July 2020. We also searched the abstract archives until the end of August 2020 and gathered 28 reported cases. The diagnostic criteria for SARS-CoV-2 infection were determined according to SARS-CoV-2 detection in oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal samples in clinically suspected patients. Demographics, prominent COVID-19 symptoms, confirmatory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, the interval between the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and CVST, clinical and radiological features of CVST, therapeutic strategies, CVST outcomes, rate of hemorrhagic transformation, and mortality rate were investigated. RESULTS: Six patients (31-62 years-old) with confirmed CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our centers. Four patients had no respiratory symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five patients developed the clinical manifestations of CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection simultaneously. Three patients had known predisposing factors for CVST. Despite receiving CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection treatments, four patients died. SARS-COV-2 associated CVST patients were older (49.26 vs. 37.77 years-old), had lower female/male ratio (1.42 vs. 2.19), and higher mortality rate (35.29% vs. 6.07%) than CVST not associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The role of SARS-CoV-2 as a "cause" versus an "additive contributor" remains to be elucidated. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology
Neurol Sci ; 41(11): 3057-3061, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777864


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to collect the data on the occurrence of seizures in patients with COVID-19 and to clarify the circumstances of the occurrence of seizures in these patients. METHODS: All consecutive patients who referred to healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province (located in South Iran with a population of 4.851 million people) from February 19 until June 2, 2020, and had confirmed COVID-19 by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing and seizure were included. RESULTS: During the study period, 6,147 people had confirmed COVID-19 in Fars province, Iran; 110 people died from the illness (case fatality rate 1.79%). During this time period, five people had seizures (seizure rate 0.08%). In four patients, seizure was one of the presenting manifestations, and in one person, it happened during the course of hospital admission. Two patients had status epilepticus. All patients experienced hypoxemia and four of them needed respirator. Two patients had related metabolic derangements and one had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain imaging was abnormal in three patients. Four patients died. CONCLUSION: New-onset seizures in critically ill patients with COVID-19 should be considered as acute symptomatic seizures and the treating physician should try to determine the etiology of the seizure and manage the cause immediately and appropriately. Detailed clinical, neurological, imaging, and electrophysiological investigations and attempts to isolate SARS-CoV-2 from CSF may clarify the role played by this virus in causing seizures in these patients.

Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Seizures/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology
Cerebellum ; 19(6): 911-914, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690463


Novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2: SARS-CoV-2), which originated from Wuhan, China, has spread to the other countries in a short period of time. We report a 47-year-old male who was admitted to our hospital due to suffering from progressive vertigo and ataxia for 7 days prior to the admission. Neurological examination revealed cerebellar dysfunction, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted edema of the cerebellar hemisphere associated with leptomeningeal enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevated protein, and lactate dehydrogenase. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal and CSF specimens. As a result, treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir was initiated, and patient symptoms and signs improved significantly during the course of hospitalization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of acute cerebellitis associated with COVID-19 disease which is reported in the literature so far.

Betacoronavirus , Cerebellar Diseases/complications , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2