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2.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 896362, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911024

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In a prospective cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, an extensive characterization of hemostatic alterations by both global and specific assays was performed to clarify mechanisms underlying the coagulopathy and identify predictive factors for thrombotic and hemorrhagic events during hospitalization. Materials and Methods: Intensive care unit (ICU; n = 46) and non-ICU (n = 55) patients were enrolled, and the occurrence of thrombotic and hemorrhagic events was prospectively monitored. At study inclusion, thromboelastometry together with the measurement of specific coagulation proteins and hypercoagulation markers was performed. Results: Patients (median age 67 years) showed significantly shorter clot formation time together with greater maximum clot firmness by thromboelastometry, increased levels of F1 + 2 and D-dimer, as biomarkers of hypercoagulability, and of procoagulant factors V, VIII, IX, XI, and fibrinogen, while FXIII was significantly reduced. The concentration of fibrinolytic proteins, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) were elevated in the overall cohort of patients. Many of these hemostatic alterations were significantly greater in ICU compared to non-ICU subjects and, furthermore, they were associated with inflammatory biomarker elevation [i.e., interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and procalcitonin]. After enrollment, 7 thrombosis and 14 major bleedings occurred. Analysis of clinical and biological data identified increased t-PA, PAI-1, and NLR values as independent predictive factors for thrombosis, while lower FXIII levels were associated with bleeding. Conclusion: This study demonstrates alterations in all different hemostatic compartments analyzed, particularly in severe COVID-19 conditions, that strongly correlated with the inflammatory status. A potential role of fibrinolytic proteins together with NLR and of FXIII as predictors of thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications, respectively, is highlighted.

3.
Hepatology ; 2022 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A few case reports of autoimmune hepatitis-like liver injury have been reported after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. We evaluated clinical features, treatment response and outcomes of liver injury following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a large case series. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We collected data from cases in 18 countries. The type of liver injury was assessed with the R-value. The study population was categorized according to features of immune-mediated hepatitis (positive autoantibodies and elevated immunoglobulin G levels) and corticosteroid therapy for the liver injury. We identified 87 patients (63%, female), median age 48 (range: 18-79) years at presentation. Liver injury was diagnosed a median 15 (range: 3-65) days after vaccination. Fifty-one cases (59%) were attributed to the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) vaccine, 20 (23%) cases to the Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOX1 nCoV-19) vaccine and 16 (18%) cases to the Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccine. The liver injury was predominantly hepatocellular (84%) and 57% of patients showed features of immune-mediated hepatitis. Corticosteroids were given to 46 (53%) patients, more often for grade 3-4 liver injury than for grade 1-2 liver injury (88.9% vs. 43.5%, p = 0.001) and more often for patients with than without immune-mediated hepatitis (71.1% vs. 38.2%, p = 0.003). All patients showed resolution of liver injury except for one man (1.1%) who developed liver failure and underwent liver transplantation. Steroid therapy was withdrawn during the observation period in 12 (26%) patients after complete biochemical resolution. None had a relapse during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can be associated with liver injury. Corticosteroid therapy may be beneficial in those with immune-mediated features or severe hepatitis. Outcome was generally favorable, but vaccine-associated liver injury led to fulminant liver failure in one patient.

4.
Liver Int ; 42(5): 1012-1016, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The World Health Organization (WHO) goal of hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination by 2030 relies on the scaling-up of both identification and linkage to care of the infected population, worldwide. In Italy, the estimated burden of HCV carriers who are unaware of their infection amounts to 200 000 persons, a projection that reinforces the need for broadening population access to effective screening programmes. METHODS: A pivotal screening programme targeting subjects born between 1969 and 1989 has been conducted in Lombardy, Northern Italy, where point-of-care (POC) testing was offered for free concomitantly to COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Amongst 7219 subjects born between 1969 and 1989 who underwent HCV screening through POC, 7 (0.10%) subjects tested anti-HCV positive: 5 (0.07%) had confirmed anti-HCV positivity (Table 1) and 4 of them (0.05%) were HCV-RNA positive by standard confirmation tests. CONCLUSIONS: This pivotal study demonstrated the feasibility of a POC-based anti-HCV screening programme in young adults undergoing COVID-19 vaccination. The prevalence of HCV infection in subjects born in the 1969-1989 cohort in Italy seems to be lower than previously estimated. Whether the extension of this programme to subjects born before 1969 could lead to improved screening effectiveness should be a matter of debate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Humans , Mass Screening , Vaccination
5.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An aspect of COVID-19 baffling physicians is the presentation of patients with acute respiratory failure, but normal mental faculties and no perception of dyspnea (i.e. "silent hypoxemia"). The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, characteristics, and outcome of COVID-19 patients with silent hypoxemic status and comparing them with a symptomatic severity-matched group. METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric observational study involving all patients with PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, admitted at Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo (Italy) from Emergency Department due to acute respiratory failure, during the first Italian pandemic peak (February-April 2020). RESULTS: Overall 28-day mortality in 1,316 patients was 26.9%. Patients who did not report dyspnea at admission (N 469, 35.6%) had a lower 28-day mortality (22.6 vs. 29.3%, p=0.009). The severity matching analysis (i.e. PaO2/FiO2 and imaging) led to the identification of two groups of 254 patients that did not differ for sex prevalence, age, BMI, smoking history, comorbidities, and PaCO2 at admission. The use of CPAP during the first 24 hours, such as the need of endotracheal intubation (ETI) during the overall admission were significantly lower in matched patients with silent hypoxemia, whereas 28-day mortality resulted similar (p=0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of dyspnea is common in patients suffering from severe COVID-19 pneumonia leading to respiratory failure, since up to a third of them could be asymptomatic on admission. Dyspnea per se correlates with pneumonia severity, and prognosis. However, dyspnea loses its predictive relevance once other findings to evaluate pneumonia severity are available such as PaO2/FiO2 and imaging. Silent hypoxemic patients are less likely to receive CPAP during the first 24 hours and ETI during the hospitalization, in spite of a comparable mortality to the dyspneic ones.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306621

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of COVID-19 on patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT) and on their post-LT course is presently unknown. Methods: Data from consecutive adult LT candidates with COVID-19 were collected across Europe in a dedicated registry and analyzed.Findings: From February 21st to November 20th, 2020, 136 adult cases with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 33 centers in 11 European countries were collected, with 113 having COVID-19. Thirty-seven (37/113, 32·7%) patients died after a median of 18 (10-30) days, respiratory failure being the major cause (33/37, 89·2%). The 60-day mortality risk did not significantly change between first (35·3%, 95% CI 23·9-50·0) and second wave (26·0%, 95% CI 16·2-40·2). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed lab-MELD score ≥15 (MELD 15-19 HR 6·09, 95% CI 2·01-18·45;MELD ≥20 HR 5·21, 95% CI 1·76-15·45) and dyspnea on presentation (HR 4·10, 95% CI 2·09-8·06) being the two negative independent factors for mortality. The mortality risk reached 49·2% (31/63) in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and lab-MELD score ≥15. Twenty-six patient received a LT after a median time of 78.5 (IQR 44-102) days and 25 (96%) are alive after median follow-up of 118 days (IQR 31-170).Interpretation: Increased mortality in LT candidates with COVID-19 (32·7%), reaching 49·2% in those with decompensated cirrhosis and lab-MELD score ≥15, with no significant difference between first and second wave of the pandemic. Respiratory failure was the major cause of death. The dismal prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis supports the adoption of strict preventative measures and the urgent testing of vaccination efficacy in this population. Prior SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infection did not affect early post-transplant survival (96%).Funding: No funding source.Declaration of Interests: None to declare. Ethics Approval Statement: Data was collected in accordance with General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the European Union legislation and the ELTR privacy policy. Reg. HCB/2020/0479 released by CLINICAL RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEE from Hospital Clinic Barcelona

7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 170, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582005

ABSTRACT

A survey of hospitals on three continents was performed to assess their infection control preparedness and measures, and their infection rate in hospital health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. All surveyed hospitals used similar PPE but differences in preparedness, PPE shortages, and infection rates were reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Hypertens ; 40(4): 666-674, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effect of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) on mortality in patients with coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is debated. From a cohort of 1352 consecutive patients admitted with Covid-19 to Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital in Bergamo, Italy, between February and April 2020, we selected and studied hypertensive patients to assess whether antecedent (prior to hospitalization) use of RASIs might affect mortality from Covid-19 according to age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arterial hypertension was present in 688 patients. Overall mortality (in-hospital or shortly after discharge) was 35% (N = 240). After adjusting for 26 medical history variables via propensity score matching, antecedent use of RASIs (N = 459, 67%) was associated with a lower mortality in older hypertensive patients (age above the median of 68 years in the whole series), whereas no evidence of a significant effect was found in the younger group of the same population (P interaction = 0.001). In an analysis of the subgroup of 432 hypertensive patients older than 68 years, we considered two RASI drug subclasses, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs, N = 156) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, N = 140), and assessed their respective effects by taking no-antecedent-use of RASIs as reference. This analysis showed that both antecedent use of ACEIs and antecedent use of ARBs were associated with a lower Covid-19 mortality (odds ratioACEI = 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.36--0.91, P = 0.018) (odds ratioARB = 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.29--0.82, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: In the population of over-68 hypertensive Covid-19 patients, antecedent use of ACEIs or ARBs was associated with a lower all-cause mortality, whether in-hospital or shortly after discharge, compared with no-antecedent-use of RASIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/chemically induced , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
TH Open ; 5(3): e253-e263, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483194

ABSTRACT

Introduction Endothelial damage and hypercoagulability are major players behind the hemostatic derangement of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Aim In this prospective study we assessed endothelial and inflammatory biomarkers in a cohort of COVID-19 patients, aiming to identify predictive factors of in-hospital mortality. Methods COVID-19 patients hospitalized in intensive care (ICU) and non-ICU units at 2 Bergamo (Italy) hospitals from March 23 to May 30, 2020, were enrolled. Markers of endothelium activation including von-Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), and fibrinolytic proteins (t-PA and PAI-1) were measured. Additionally, D-dimer, Fibrinogen, FVIII, nucleosomes, C reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin were assessed. Results Sixty-three (45 ICU, and 18 non-ICU) patients, with a median age of 62 years were analyzed. Increased plasma levels of D-dimer, FVIII, fibrinogen, nucleosomes, CRP, and procalcitonin were observed in the whole cohort. Extremely elevated vWF levels characterized all patients (highest values in ICU-subjects). After a median time of 30 days, death occurred in 13 (21%) patients. By multivariable analysis, vWF-activity, neutrophil-count and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly associated with death. Using these variables, a linear score with 3-risk groups was generated that provided a cumulative incidence of death of 0% in the low-, 32% in the intermediate-, and 78% in the high-risk group. Conclusions COVID-19-induced hemostatic abnormalities are exacerbated by the severity of the disease and strongly correlate with the inflammatory status, underlying the link between coagulation, endothelial activation, and inflammation. Our study provides evidence for a role of vWF, together with neutrophils and PaO2/FiO2, as a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality by SARSCoV-2 infection.

12.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):36-36, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1338963

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION The occurrence of a hypercoagulable state in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is supported by studies conducted with routine coagulation tests, including plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen, and platelet count.AIM In this study we performed an extensive characterization of the hemostatic alterations by both global and specific assays in a cohort of 78 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The aims were to: 1) clarify mechanisms underlying the coagulopathy, and 2) identify predictive factors of disease severity and thrombotic events (i.e. deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism [PE] or arterial thromboembolism [ATE]).METHODS COVID-19 patients admitted to the Hospital Papa Giovanni XXIII in Bergamo, Italy, from March 23 to May 30, 2020, were enrolled prospectively, providing informed consent. As a global assay, thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed in whole blood by EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM tests. Specific assays included plasma levels of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway coagulation factors, von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and activity, anticoagulant proteins (i.e. protein C [PC], free-protein S [PS], and antithrombin [AT]), fibrinolytic proteins (i.e. tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA], and inhibitor [PAI-1]), and hypercoagulation biomarkers (i.e. prothrombin fragment 1+2 [F1+2], and D-dimer). In addition, biomarkers of immunoinflammation (i.e. neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs], CRP and procalcitonin) were measured. Occurrence of thrombotic events and death were monitored during follow up.RESULTS 78 patients (56M/22F), median age 62.7 years (25-87), were analyzed. According to disease severity, 45 were ICU, and 33 non-ICU patients. Sixty-three of them were on thromboprophylaxis. Global hemostasis analysis by ROTEM showed a prothrombotic profile in patients compared to controls, with a significantly shorter clot formation time (CFT), and increased maximum clot firmness (MCF), which were significantly greater in the ICU vs non-ICU patients. The occurrence of an 'in vivo' hypercoagulable state was confirmed by increased plasma levels of F1+2 and D-dimer, with the highest values of D-dimer in the ICU subjects. Hypercoagulability, rather than factors' consumption, was also shown by the findings of significantly higher plasma procoagulant factors V, VIII, IX and fibrinogen in ICU compared to non-ICU patients (p<0.001). Endothelium activation was shown by extremely elevated vWF antigen and activity levels in all patients (highest values in ICU subjects). Moreover, the concentrations of fibrinolytic proteins, t-PA, and its inhibitor PAI-1, were elevated (p<0.01) in patients compared to normal controls, without difference between ICU and non-ICU subjects. Finally, the inflammatory parameters' analysis in the ICU group demonstrated significantly increased plasma levels of NETs, CRP, and procalcitonin, compared to non-ICU patients. Of note, NETs levels significantly (p<0.02) correlated with vWF, D-dimer and t-PA, while CRP and procalcitonin inversely correlated with anticoagulant PC.After a median time of 8.8 days, 19 (24%) patients experienced thrombosis (3 DVT, 8 PE, 8 ATE). Thirteen (17%) patients from total population died after a median time of 33 days of hospitalization. Baseline D-dimer and t-PA levels were significantly higher in patients developing VTE, while baseline FVIII, vWF and D-dimer levels were greater in subjects who died during follow-up. By Cox analysis, high D-dimer and younger age were significantly associated with mortality.CONCLUSIONS Our study provides for the first time an extensive overview of the hypercoagulable state induced by SARSCoV-2 infection, demonstrating alterations in all of the different hemostatic compartments analyzed. The viral infection-induced hemostatic abnormalities are exacerbated by the severity of the disease and strongly correlate with the proinflammatory status, demonstrating the link between coagulation and inflammation. This link is further supported by the clear correlation found between NETosis and markers of endothelial and blood clotting act vation. Finally, these data add evidence to the role of D-dimer as a significant predictor of intra-hospital mortality.

13.
Gut ; 70(10): 1914-1924, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318040

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore the impact of COVID-19 on patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT) and on their post-LT course. DESIGN: Data from consecutive adult LT candidates with COVID-19 were collected across Europe in a dedicated registry and were analysed. RESULTS: From 21 February to 20 November 2020, 136 adult cases with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 33 centres in 11 European countries were collected, with 113 having COVID-19. Thirty-seven (37/113, 32.7%) patients died after a median of 18 (10-30) days, with respiratory failure being the major cause (33/37, 89.2%). The 60-day mortality risk did not significantly change between first (35.3%, 95% CI 23.9% to 50.0%) and second (26.0%, 95% CI 16.2% to 40.2%) waves. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed Laboratory Model for End-stage Liver Disease (Lab-MELD) score of ≥15 (Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score 15-19, HR 5.46, 95% CI 1.81 to 16.50; MELD score≥20, HR 5.24, 95% CI 1.77 to 15.55) and dyspnoea on presentation (HR 3.89, 95% CI 2.02 to 7.51) being the two negative independent factors for mortality. Twenty-six patients underwent an LT after a median time of 78.5 (IQR 44-102) days, and 25 (96%) were alive after a median follow-up of 118 days (IQR 31-170). CONCLUSIONS: Increased mortality in LT candidates with COVID-19 (32.7%), reaching 45% in those with decompensated cirrhosis (DC) and Lab-MELD score of ≥15, was observed, with no significant difference between first and second waves of the pandemic. Respiratory failure was the major cause of death. The dismal prognosis of patients with DC supports the adoption of strict preventative measures and the urgent testing of vaccination efficacy in this population. Prior SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infection did not affect early post-transplant survival (96%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Liver Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Transplant Recipients , Cause of Death , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Waiting Lists
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 96, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender-related factors might affect vulnerability to Covid-19. The aim of this study was to describe the role of gender on clinical features and 28-day mortality in Covid-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study of Covid-19 patients hospitalized in Bergamo, Italy, during the first three weeks of the outbreak. Medical records, clinical, radiological and laboratory findings upon admission and treatment have been collected. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality since hospitalization. RESULTS: 431 consecutive adult patients were admitted. Female patients were 119 (27.6%) with a mean age of 67.0 ± 14.5 years (vs 67.8 ± 12.5 for males, p = 0.54). Previous history of myocardial infarction, vasculopathy and former smoking habits were more common for males. At the time of admission PaO2/FiO2 was similar between men and women (228 [IQR, 134-273] vs 238 mmHg [150-281], p = 0.28). Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) assistance was needed in the first 24 h more frequently in male patients (25.7% vs 13.0%; p = 0.006). Overall 28-day mortality was 26.1% in women and 38.1% in men (p = 0.018). Gender did not result an independent predictor of death once the parameters related to disease severity at presentation were included in the multivariable analysis (p = 0.898). Accordingly, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in female and male patients requiring CPAP or non-invasive ventilation in the first 24 h did not find a significant difference (p = 0.687). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized women are less likely to die from Covid-19; however, once severe disease occurs, the risk of dying is similar to men. Further studies are needed to better investigate the role of gender in clinical course and outcome of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 609440, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120165

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread rapidly. Here we discuss the dramatic situation created by COVID-19 in Italy, particularly in the province of Bergamo (the most severely affected in the first wave), as an example of how, in the face of an unprecedented tragedy, acting (albeit belatedly)-including imposing a very strict lockdown-can largely resolve the situation within approximately 2 months. The measures taken here ensured that Bergamo hospital, which was confronted with rapidly rising numbers of severely ill COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization, was able to meet the initial challenges of the pandemic. We also report that local organization and, more important, the large natural immunity against SARS-CoV-2 of the Bergamo population developed during the first wave of the epidemic, can explain the limited number of new COVID-19 cases during the more recent second wave compared to the numbers in other areas of Lombardy. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of coordinating the easing of containment measures to avoid what is currently observed in other countries, especially in the United States, Latin American and India, where this approach has not been adopted, and a dramatic resurgence of COVID-19 cases and an increase in the number of hospitalisations and deaths have been reported.

18.
Panminerva Med ; 63(1): 51-61, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Findings from February 2020, indicate that the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 can be heterogeneous, probably due to the infectious dose and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 within the first weeks of the outbreak. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of overall 28-day mortality at the peak of the Italian outbreak. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of all COVID-19 patients admitted to the main hospital of Bergamo, from February 23 to March 14, 2020. RESULTS: Five hundred and eight patients were hospitalized, predominantly male (72.4%), mean age of 66±15 years; 49.2% were older than 70 years. Most of patients presented with severe respiratory failure (median value [IQR] of PaO2/FiO2: 233 [149-281]). Mortality rate at 28 days resulted of 33.7% (N.=171). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), 9.5% with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and 13.6% with endotracheal intubation. 9.5% were admitted to Semi-Intensive Respiratory Care Unit, and 18.9% to Intensive Care Unit. Risk factors independently associated with 28-day mortality were advanced age (≥78 years: odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.91 [10.67-141.93], P<0.001; 70-77 years: 17.30 [5.40-55.38], P<0.001; 60-69 years: 3.20 [1.00-10.20], P=0.049), PaO2/FiO2<200 at presentation (3.50 [1.70-7.20], P=0.001), need for CPAP/NIV in the first 24 hours (8.38 [3.63-19.35], P<0.001), and blood urea value at admission (1.01 [1.00-1.02], P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: At the peak of the outbreak, with a probable high infectious dose and viral load, older age, the severity of respiratory failure and renal impairment at presentation, but not comorbidities, are predictors of 28-day mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
19.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245281, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Validated tools for predicting individual in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 are lacking. We aimed to develop and to validate a simple clinical prediction rule for early identification of in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled 2191 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from three Italian dedicated units (derivation cohort: 1810 consecutive patients from Bergamo and Pavia units; validation cohort: 381 consecutive patients from Rome unit). The outcome was in-hospital mortality. Fine and Gray competing risks multivariate model (with discharge as a competing event) was used to develop a prediction rule for in-hospital mortality. Discrimination and calibration were assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and by Brier score in both the derivation and validation cohorts. Seven variables were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality: age (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.08, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.07-1.09), male sex (HR 1.62, 95%CI 1.30-2.00), duration of symptoms before hospital admission <10 days (HR 1.72, 95%CI 1.39-2.12), diabetes (HR 1.21, 95%CI 1.02-1.45), coronary heart disease (HR 1.40 95% CI 1.09-1.80), chronic liver disease (HR 1.78, 95%CI 1.16-2.72), and lactate dehydrogenase levels at admission (HR 1.0003, 95%CI 1.0002-1.0005). The AUC was 0.822 (95%CI 0.722-0.922) in the derivation cohort and 0.820 (95%CI 0.724-0.920) in the validation cohort with good calibration. The prediction rule is freely available as a web-app (COVID-CALC: https://sites.google.com/community.unipa.it/covid-19riskpredictions/c19-rp). CONCLUSIONS: A validated simple clinical prediction rule can promptly and accurately assess the risk for in-hospital mortality, improving triage and the management of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic immunosuppression is associated with increased and more severe viral infections. However, little is known about the association between immunosuppression and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of immunosuppressed autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Italy. METHODS: Our study is a case series of AIH patients treated with immunosuppression, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in March 2020 during outbreak of COVID-19. RESULTS: Ten patients from six different hospitals in Italy were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in March 2020. Seven subjects were female (70%) and age ranged from 27 to 73 years. Before the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection, all patients were taking immunosuppressive therapy for AIH, and eight of them were on biochemical remission. Two other patients had recent acute onset of their AIH, and were consequently started high-dose steroids, as per induction protocol. All patients had a respiratory syndrome and had a positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2. Five patients developed a CT-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Six subjects received a combination of antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs. In seven patients the dosage of immunosuppressive medication was changed. Liver enzymes were repeated during SARS-CoV-2 infection in all hospitalized cases; they remained within the normal range in all cases, and improved in the two acute cases treated with high-dose steroids. The clinical outcome was comparable to the reported cases occurring in non-immunosuppressed subjects. CONCLUSION: Patients under immunosuppressive therapy for AIH developing COVID-19 show a disease course presumptively similar to that reported in non-immunosuppressed population. These data might help medical decision when dealing with SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients.

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