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2.
J Drug Target ; : 1-10, 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001024

ABSTRACT

Alpha-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) effectively activates the natural killer T (NKT) cells to secrete remarkable amounts of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and therefore, acts as a potential immunoadjuvant in vaccine formulation. In the present study, we prepared α-GalCer-bearing or α-GalCer-free liposomes and loaded them with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus papain-like protease (α-GalCer-Lip-MERS-CoV PLpro or Lip-MERS-CoV PLpro). These formulations were injected in mice to investigate the antigen-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The immunisation with α-GalCer-Lip-MERS-CoV PLpro or Lip-MERS-CoV PLpro did not induce any notable toxicity in immunised mice. The results demonstrated that mice immunised with α-GalCer-Lip-MERS-CoV PLpro showed greater antigen-specific antibody titre, switching of IgG isotyping to IgG2a subclass and higher lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, the splenocytes from α-GalCer-Lip-MERS-CoV PLpro immunised mice secreted greater levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2 and IL-12. Interestingly, a booster dose induced stronger memory immune responses in mice previously immunised with α-GalCer-Lip-MERS-CoV PLpro. In summary, α-GalCer-Lip-MERS-CoV PLpro may prove to be a promising vaccine formulation to protect the individuals against MERS-CoV infection.

3.
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy ; : 113522, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1982625

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been reported worldwide. The advent of variants of concern (VOCs) raises severe concerns amid the serious containment efforts against COVID-19 that include physical measures, pharmacological repurposing, immunization, and genomic/community surveillance. Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has been identified as a highly modified, contagious, and crucial variant among the five VOCs of SARS-CoV-2. The increased affinity of the spike protein (S-protein), and host receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), due to a higher number of mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S-protein has been proposed as the primary reason for the decreased efficacy of majorly available vaccines against the Omicron variant and the increased transmissible nature of the Omicron variant. Because of its significant competitive advantage, the Omicron variant and its sublineages swiftly surpassed other variants to become the dominant circulating lineages in a number of nations. The Omicron variant has been identified as a prevalent strain in the United Kingdom and South Africa. Furthermore, the emergence of recombinant variants through the conjunction of the Omicron variant with other variants or by the mixing of the Omicron variant's sublineages/subvariants poses a major threat to humanity. This raises various issues and hazards regarding the Omicron variant and its sublineages, such as an Omicron variant breakout in susceptible populations among fully vaccinated persons. As a result, understanding the features and genetic implications of this variant is crucial. Hence, we explained in depth the evolution and features of the Omicron variant and analyzed the repercussions of spike mutations on infectiousness, dissemination ability, viral entry mechanism, and immune evasion. We also presented a viewpoint on feasible strategies for precluding and counteracting any future catastrophic emergence and spread of the omicron variant and its sublineages that could result in a detrimental wave of COVID-19 cases.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272869, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe complications from COVID-19 and poor responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were commonly reported in cancer patients compared to those without cancer. Therefore, the identification of predisposing factors to SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients would assist in the prevention of COVID-19 and improve vaccination strategies. The literature lacks reports on this topic from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Therefore, we studied clinical and laboratory data of 139 cancer patients from King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, KSA. METHODS: The cancer patients fall into three categories; (i) uninfected with SARS-CoV-2 pre-vaccination and remained uninfected post-vaccination (control group; n = 114; 81%), (ii) pre-vaccination infected group (n = 16; 11%), or (iii) post-vaccination infected group (n = 9; 6%). Next, the clinical and lab data of the three groups of patients were investigated. RESULTS: Comorbidity factors like diabetes and hemodialysis were associated with the risk of infection in cancer patients before the vaccination (p<0.05). In contrast to breast cancer, papillary thyroid cancer was more prevalent in the infected patients pre- and post-vaccination (p<0.05). Pre-vaccination infected group had earlier cancer stages compared with the control group (p = 0.01). On the other hand, combined therapy was less commonly administrated to the infected groups versus the control group (p<0.05). Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was lower in the post-vaccination infected group compared to the control group (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Collectively, this is the first study from KSA to report potential risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients pre- and post-vaccination. Further investigations on these risk factors in a larger cohort are worthwhile to draw a definitive conclusion about their roles in predisposing cancer patients to the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 4127-4136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974458

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate antibody immune responses induced by BNT162b2 and AZD1222 human COVID-19 vaccines in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: ELISA was used to evaluate antibodies, against the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein, in serum samples from 432 vaccinated individuals at six time points: pre-vaccination (baseline), post-prime, post-boost, 6-months, and 1 year post-vaccination, and 3 weeks post a third dose. Virus microneutralization assay was used to confirm antibody responses in a subset of samples. Results: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG were detected in most subjects post-prime, reached a peak level post-boost, and remained at high level at the 6-month follow-up. At 1 year post-vaccine, the antibody levels were low but increased to a significant level higher than the peak following a third dose. The third dose was given at an average of 250 days after the second dose. The virus microneutralization assay confirmed the neutralization activity of the induced SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. The vaccines induced higher IgG titres at post-prime (p=0.0001) and 6 months (p=0.006) in previously infected individuals. An increased interval between prime and boost, more than recommended time, appeared to enhance the IgG levels (p=0004). Moreover, the vaccines induced higher IgG levels in younger subjects (p=0.01). Conclusion: These data provide insights and build on the current understanding of immune responses induced by these two vaccines; and support a third boosting dose for these COVID-19 vaccines.

6.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925213

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe a rare case of an AIDP variant with bilateral bell's palsy in the setting of SARS-CoV-2. Background: Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical presentation, usually in the setting of underlying systemic disease. Bilateral Bell 's palsy is defined as facial paresis or paralysis involving both sides of the face with an onset that is either simultaneous or within 30 days of each other and represents less than 2% of all facial palsies. AIDP is a potential cause of bilateral facial palsy, and is prevalent in 24-60% of cases. We report a case of a 62-year-old female who presented with bilateral Bell's palsy with bilateral lower extremity weakness and recently positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patient had appropriate findings to suggest a form of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), however hyperreflexia on the exam creates a case of a plausible variant such as Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy (AMAN). Design/Methods: Case report and literature review. Literature review spanning 2009-2021 was conducted via Pubmed. Search terms were “COVID-19”, “bilateral Bell's Palsy”, “facial diplegia”, “Guillain Barré Syndrome”, “AIDP”, “hyperreflexia” Results: Literature review found 9 nerve conduction studies confirming AIDP cases with bilateral Bell's palsy and SARS-CoV-2. 17 non-SARS-CoV-2 cases were found to have AIDP with hyperreflexia, however nerve conduction studies found an axonal neuropathy, suggesting the diagnosis of AMAN. Since this patient presented with hyperreflexia, AMAN, which is a rare AIDP subtype, could have been a likely diagnosis. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with several neurological manifestations. AIDP, in particular, has increased in incidence with the rise in SARS-CoV-2 infections via unclear immune mediated mechanisms. The patient's bilateral Bell's palsy indicates a rare AIDP variant. Interestingly, this patient had upper motor neuron signs, but with nerve conduction studies consistent with distal demyelinating neuropathy without denervation/motor axonal loss.

7.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910806

ABSTRACT

The vaccine development for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is primarily focused on structure of the spike (S) protein. The heavy glycosylation of S with flexible hinges at stalk shields from antibodies. The flexible nature of hinges may be one of the important factors which are responsible for binding the odorant receptor of those neurons which are responsible for the loss of smell in patients with COVID-19 infection. In this study strong and stable bond formation results from reaction between R:14: Trp and Phe at the residue, the expected outcome of this research may help in designing a novel vaccine that targets the flexible hinges of SARS-CoV-2. The difference in the conformational structure of S protein and their binding with the odorant receptor in COVID-19 are prime factor for the loss of smell and taste in patients supported by the concept of Antigen (epitope) Antibody interaction by stable formation of Hydrogen bond among odorant receptor and the S protein. The flexibility of structural proteins determines if the antibodies or other defense proteins produced are homologous participating in antigen antibody reaction thus maintaining the most neutralization sensitive epitope to produce the new vaccine strain or in isolating most effectively neutralizing human mABs. Molecular and atomic level details potentiate the design and screening of small molecules that can inhibit the fusion at entry level or at odorant receptors and potentially be used in prevention and treatment of infection particularly when formulated as nasal drops, paving a new approach for pharmacologist in treatment of COVID-19 infection.

8.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 849659, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896734

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on SARS-CoV-2 in infants ≤ 90 days are limited with conflicting reports regarding its presentation and outcomes. Methods: We conducted an ambispective cohort study using prospectively collected Health Electronic Surveillance Network Database by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Infants of ≤ 90 days of age who had a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 virus were included. Patients were divided in Early neonatal (0-6 days), late neonatal (7-27 days), and post- neonatal (28-90 days) groups and were compared for clinical characteristics and outcomes by contacting parents and collecting information retrospectively. Results: Of 1,793 infants, 898 infants were included for analysis. Most infants in the early neonatal group had no features of infection (tested based on maternal positivity), whereas most infants in the late and post- neonatal groups were tested because of clinical features of infection. Fever and respiratory signs were the most common presenting feature in the late and post-neonatal groups. Hospitalization was higher in the early neonatal group (80%), compared to the two other groups. The overall mortality in the cohort was 1.6%. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants ≤ 90 days might not be as rare as previously reported. The clinical presentation varies based on age at positive RT-PCR result.

9.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855235

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a primary respiratory disease with an alarming impact worldwide. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and presents various neurological symptoms, including seizures. SARS-CoV-2 shows neuroinvasive and neurotropic capabilities through a neuronal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is also highly expressed in both neuronal and glial cells. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 can trigger neuroinflammation and neuronal hyperexcitability, increasing the risk of seizures'. Olfactory neurons could be an exceptional neuronal pathway for the neuroinvasion of respiratory viruses to access the central nervous system (CNS) from the nasal cavity, leading to neuronal injury and neuroinflammation. Although neuronal ACE2 has been widely studied, other receptors for SARS-CoV-2 in the brain have been proposed to mediate viral-neuronal interactions with subsequent neurological squeals. Thus, the objective of the present critical review was to find the association and mechanistic insight between COVID-19 and the risk of seizures.

10.
Drug Metab Pers Ther ; 37(1): 35-40, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To mitigate the incidence of recurrent stroke in patients, dual antiplatelet therapy comprising aspirin and clopidogrel is usually administered. Clopidogrel is a prodrug and its bioactivation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C19. The main objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of CYP2C19*2 carriers in Saudi ischemic stroke patients and assess the suitability of using genotyping to guide antiplatelet therapy in a university hospital setup. METHODS: This prospective (2018-2019) study was conducted on 256 patients (age 61 ± 12.5) clinically diagnosed with ischemic stroke who were genotyped using Spartan RX CYP2C19 assay. RESULTS: From the total patient group (256), upon admission, 210 patients were prescribed either aspirin, clopidogrel or dual antiplatelet therapy. Of the 27 patients with the CYP2C19*2 allele who were prescribed clopidogrel (18) or dual antiplatelet therapy (9), only 21 patients could be followed up for a period of six months post stroke event, in addition to 21 age- and sex-matched patients with the normal allele. The CYP2C19*2 allele carriers had a statistically significant increased risk of recurrent stroke compared to patients carrying the normal allele. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the suitability of using genotyping to guide antiplatelet therapy in ischemic stroke patients in a clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Ischemic Stroke , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Aged , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Genotype , Hospitals , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/genetics , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 358: 109898, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838609

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a coronavirus-induced illness attributed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, is thought to have first emerged on November 17, 2019. According to World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 has been linked to 379,223,560 documented occurrences and 5,693,245 fatalities globally as of 1st Feb 2022. Influenza A virus that has also been discovered diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort was found in the infected person, highlighting the need of monitoring them for gastro intestinal tract (GIT) symptoms regardless of whether the sickness is respiration related. The majority of the microbiome in the intestines is Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, while Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes are found in the lungs. Although most people overcome SARS-CoV-2 infections, many people continue to have symptoms months after the original sickness, called Long-COVID or Post COVID. The term "post-COVID-19 symptoms" refers to those that occur with or after COVID-19 and last for more than 12 weeks (long-COVID-19). The possible understanding of biological components such as inflammatory, immunological, metabolic activity biomarkers in peripheral blood is needed to evaluate the study. Therefore, this article aims to review the informative data that supports the idea underlying the disruption mechanisms of the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract in the acute COVID-19 or post-COVID-mediated elevation of severity biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333657

ABSTRACT

Understanding protective mechanisms of antibody recognition can inform vaccine and therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2. We discovered a new antibody, 910-30, that targets the SARS-CoV-2 ACE2 receptor binding site as a member of a public antibody response encoded by IGHV3-53/IGHV3-66 genes. We performed sequence and structural analyses to explore how antibody features correlate with SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Cryo-EM structures of 910-30 bound to the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer revealed its binding interactions and ability to disassemble spike. Despite heavy chain sequence similarity, biophysical analyses of IGHV3-53/3-66 antibodies highlighted the importance of native heavy:light pairings for ACE2 binding competition and for SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. We defined paired heavy:light sequence signatures and determined antibody precursor prevalence to be ~1 in 44,000 human B cells, consistent with public antibody identification in several convalescent COVID-19 patients. These data reveal key structural and functional neutralization features in the IGHV3-53/3-66 public antibody class to accelerate antibody-based medical interventions against SARS-CoV-2. HIGHLIGHTS: A molecular study of IGHV3-53/3-66 public antibody responses reveals critical heavy and light chain features for potent neutralizationCryo-EM analyses detail the structure of a novel public antibody class member, antibody 910-30, in complex with SARS-CoV-2 spike trimerCryo-EM data reveal that 910-30 can both bind assembled trimer and can disassemble the SARS-CoV-2 spikeSequence-structure-function signatures defined for IGHV3-53/3-66 class antibodies including both heavy and light chainsIGHV3-53/3-66 class precursors have a prevalence of 1:44,000 B cells in healthy human antibody repertoires.

14.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 3: 100258, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799748

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess the amount of vaccine hesitancy and its determinants in relation to various demographic, social, and personal characteristics among the Saudi population. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: we utilized a structured questionnaire on a five point-Likert scale that included immunization process awareness, perception towards immunization and factors leading to vaccine refusal. Results: The study included 5965 participants characterized according to various demographical factors. The participant's knowledge, perception, and the factors affecting the decision of taking the vaccine were calculated. About 40.7% had enough information about COVID-19 vaccines and were willing to take it. The participant's perception towards COVID-19 vaccines is proportional to their knowledge and varied with the personal characteristics. Factors influencing vaccine use varied also with personal characteristics. Intent to be vaccinated was higher among older age groups, advanced education, retirees, and higher income persons (P < 0.001). Moreover, the influence of heterogeneity in personal perception towards COVID-19 vaccines has been discussed. Vaccine barriers scores were significantly higher among lower educational and income levels (P = 0.004). The leader's influence on vaccine decision was high (p < 0.001). The side effects of COVID-19 vaccine is the most important barrier to vaccine acceptance. Knowledge and perception score were consistently and significantly higher among the group who received their information from official websites, followed by those who had used both websites and social media (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Additional approaches will be needed to effectively meet the needs of the hesitant population, particularly the safety and efficacy concerns, the speed of vaccine development, and the distrust in government and health organizations.

15.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782208

ABSTRACT

Background Data on SARS-CoV-2 in infants ≤ 90 days are limited with conflicting reports regarding its presentation and outcomes. Methods We conducted an ambispective cohort study using prospectively collected Health Electronic Surveillance Network Database by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Infants of ≤ 90 days of age who had a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 virus were included. Patients were divided in Early neonatal (0–6 days), late neonatal (7–27 days), and post- neonatal (28–90 days) groups and were compared for clinical characteristics and outcomes by contacting parents and collecting information retrospectively. Results Of 1,793 infants, 898 infants were included for analysis. Most infants in the early neonatal group had no features of infection (tested based on maternal positivity), whereas most infants in the late and post- neonatal groups were tested because of clinical features of infection. Fever and respiratory signs were the most common presenting feature in the late and post-neonatal groups. Hospitalization was higher in the early neonatal group (80%), compared to the two other groups. The overall mortality in the cohort was 1.6%. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants ≤ 90 days might not be as rare as previously reported. The clinical presentation varies based on age at positive RT-PCR result.

16.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(8): 3562-3565, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764882

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread globally, affecting almost 160 million individuals. Elderly and pre-existing patients (such as diabetes, heart disease and asthma) seem more susceptible to severe illness with COVID-19. Roflumilast was licensed for usage in the European Union in July 2010 as a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor. Under preclinical studies, roflumilast has been shown to decrease bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, lung hydroxyproline and right heart thickening. The current study reviewed existing data that the PDE-4 inhibitor, a roflumilast, protects renal tissues and other major organ systems after COVID-19 infection by decreasing immune cell infiltration. These immune-balancing effects of roflumilast were related to a decrease in oxidative and inflammatory burden, caspase-3 suppression and increased protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic A.M.P. (cAMP) levels in renal and other organ tissue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors , Aged , Aminopyridines/adverse effects , Benzamides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Molecules ; 27(7):2221, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762045

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still ongoing, with no signs of abatement in sight. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of this pandemic and has claimed over 5 million lives, is still mutating, resulting in numerous variants. One of the newest variants is Omicron, which shows an increase in its transmissibility, but also reportedly reduces hospitalization rates and shows milder symptoms, such as in those who have been vaccinated. As a result, many believe that Omicron provides a natural vaccination, which is the first step toward ending the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on published research and scientific evidence, we review and discuss how the end of this pandemic is predicted to occur as a result of Omicron variants being surpassed in the community. In light of the findings of our research, we believe that it is most likely true that the Omicron variant is a natural way of vaccinating the masses and slowing the spread of this deadly pandemic. While the mutation that causes the Omicron variant is encouraging, subsequent mutations do not guarantee that the disease it causes will be less severe. As the virus continues to evolve, humans must constantly adapt by increasing their immunity through vaccination.

18.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(12): 981-992, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19), a current worldwide pandemic is the cause of serious concern. Risk-adjusted differences in outcomes of the patients are not well characterized. Therefore, susceptibility to infection with respect to blood group, blood pressure, pulse rate, hemoglobin, age, and BMI is analyzed in this study. METHODS: Blood donors of all ages and gender, who recovered from COVID-19 infection, were selected for the study. Samples were collected from the regional laboratory and the central blood bank of Hafr al Batin, Saudi Arabia. Out of 1508 healthy blood donors, 134 had recovered from corona without any preexisting diseases. RESULTS: Major donors were male (85.1%). 28% of donors were in the age range of 26-35 years. O+(32.8%) donors were in majority. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate elevated significantly in the age group 46-55 (p<0.05) and 56-65 (p<0.001). Systolic blood pressure in males (134.13 ± 9.57) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in females (129.35 ± 10.61). Donors with Rh+ had significantly higher systolic (p<0.05) and pulse rate (p<0.05) as compared to Rh-. DISCUSSION: O+ donors were found to be highly susceptible. Blood pressure, pulse rate and Hb altered with age. Males exhibited higher variation in systolic blood pressure, with the Rh+ factor playing a predominant role. Donors above 45-years of age and with a high BMI had significantly elevated blood pressure and pulse. These results are challenging or contradictory to the results of Turkish and Chinese studies where blood group A+ was more predominantly affected by the SARS-CoV-2 with the minimum infection rate in females and Rh- donors. CONCLUSION: Factors like blood group, age, physical characteristics and BMI should be taken into account before initiating any therapeutic approach to obtain the best possible outcomes with minimum adverse effects from the current drugs utilized for SARS CoV-2 treatment, especially with the age group of 45 years and above.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Adult , Blood Donors , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , SARS-CoV-2
19.
RSC Adv ; 12(13): 7872-7882, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751769

ABSTRACT

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a conserved serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in hematopoietic cell survival, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and other cellular processes. It plays a significant role in cancer progression and viral infection. CK2 is considered a potential drug target in cancers and COVID-19 therapy. In this study, we have performed a virtual screening of phytoconstituents from the IMPPAT database to identify some potential inhibitors of CK2. The initial filter was the physicochemical properties of the molecules following the Lipinski rule of five. Then binding affinity calculation, PAINS filter, ADMET, and PASS analyses followed by interaction analysis were carried out to discover nontoxic and better hits. Finally, two compounds, stylopine and dehydroevodiamines with appreciable affinity and specific interaction towards CK2, were identified. Their time-evolution analyses were carried out using all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, principal component analysis and free energy landscape. Altogether, we propose that stylopine and dehydroevodiamines can be further explored in in vitro and in vivo settings to develop anticancer and antiviral therapeutics.

20.
Urol Ann ; 13(4): 397-404, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702080

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on pediatric urology practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS: Data of 10 tertiary hospitals in KSA were retrospectively analyzed. Data of outpatient department (OPD) visits and pediatric urology surgical procedures from January 1, 2019, to April 30, 2019, and from January 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, were extracted. The primary outcome was to compare OPD visits and pediatric urology workload in the first third of 2020 versus 2019, where there was no curfew. The secondary outcome was to compare the same variables during the full curfew time, i.e., April 2020 versus April 2019. RESULTS: The number of OPD visits was lower in the first third of 2020 (7390 vs. 10,379 in 2019 P < 0.001). OPD visits in April 2020 were 78.6% lower than in April 2019, and teleclinics represented 850 (94.3%). Elective procedures in the first third of 2020 were 688, with a reduction rate of 34.3% compared to the same period of 2019 (P < 0.001). In April 2020, there were 18 elective surgeries, with a 91.4% decrease than in April 2019. Ureteric reimplantation, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and circumcision stopped, while pyeloplasty (n = 14) and urolithiasis (n = 4) procedures had declined by 50% and 76.5%, respectively. Most of the procedures (71.8%) were day surgery. Emergency procedures were similar in the first third of 2020 (65 vs. 64 in 2019, P = 0.994) and declined in April 2020 by 6.7% versus April 2019. During the full curfew, the most common emergency intervention were cases with obstructive uropathy (42.8%), followed by torsion testis (28.6%), posterior urethral valve (14.3%), and urological trauma (14.3%). CONCLUSIONS: In KSA, the number of elective pediatric surgical procedures were reduced by >90%, while the number of emergency pediatric surgical procdures were similar during COVID-19 pandemic compared with non-COVID-19 time. Ureteric reimplantation, hypospadias repair, cryptorchidism, and circumcision procedures were postponed. Pyeloplasty and urolithiasis-related procedures were performed to prevent irreversible disease progression or organ damage. There was an increase in rate of teleclinic and day surgery to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection.

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