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1.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 39(11): 1364-1370, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808087

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aim to explore patterns of inpatient code status during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with a similar timeframe the previous year, as well as utilization of palliative care services.Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study using data from the Montefiore Health system of all inpatient admissions between March 15-May 31, 2019 and March 15-May 31, 2020. Univariate logistic regression was performed with full code status as the outcome. All statistically significant variables were included in the multivariable logistic regression.Results: The total number of admissions declined during the pandemic (16844 vs 11637). A lower proportion of patients had full code status during the pandemic (85.1% vs 94%, P < .001) at the time of discharge/death. There was a 20% relative increase in the number of palliative care consultations during the pandemic (12.2% vs 10.5%, P < .001). Intubated patients were less often full code (66.5% vs 82.2%, P < .001) during the pandemic. Although a lower portion of COVID-19 positive patients had a full code status compared with non-COVID patients (77.6% vs 92.4%, P<.001), there was no statistically significant difference in code status at death (38.3% vs 38.3%, P = .96).Conclusions: The proportion of full code patients was significantly lower during the pandemic. Age and COVID status were the key determinants of code status during the pandemic. There was a higher demand for palliative care services during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Palliative Care , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
4.
Am J Med ; 135(7): 897-905, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Statins have been commonly used for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. We hypothesized that statins may improve in-hospital outcomes for hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to its known anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study at the largest municipal health care system in the United States, including adult patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 1 and December 1, 2020. The primary endpoint was in-hospital death. Propensity score matching was conducted to balance possible confounding variables between patients receiving statins during hospitalization (statin group) and those not receiving statins (non-statin group). Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of statin use and other variables with in-hospital outcomes. RESULTS: There were 8897 patients eligible for study enrollment, with 3359 patients in the statin group and 5538 patients in the non-statin group. After propensity score matching, both the statin and non-statin groups included 2817 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the statin group had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.80; P < .001) and mechanical ventilation (OR 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.90; P < .001) compared with the non-statin group. CONCLUSION: Statin use was associated with lower likelihood of in-hospital mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Adult , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States
5.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650049

ABSTRACT

Severe obesity increases the risk for negative outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our objectives were to investigate the effect of BMI on in-hospital outcomes in our New York City Health and Hospitals' ethnically diverse population, further explore this effect by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and timing of admission, and, given the relationship between COVID-19 and hyperinflammation, assess the concentrations of markers of systemic inflammation in different BMI groups. A retrospective study was conducted in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the public health care system of New York City from 1 March 2020 to 31 October 2020. A total of 8833 patients were included in this analysis (women: 3593, median age: 62 years). The median body mass index (BMI) was 27.9 kg/m2. Both overweight and obesity were independently associated with in-hospital death. The association of overweight and obesity with death appeared to be stronger in men, younger patients, and individuals of Hispanic ethnicity. We did not observe higher concentrations of inflammatory markers in patients with obesity as compared to those without obesity. In conclusion, overweight and obesity were independently associated with in-hospital death. Obesity was not associated with higher concentrations of inflammatory markers.

6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 522, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the high prevalence of COVID-19 infections worldwide, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is becoming an increasingly recognized entity. This syndrome presents in patients several weeks after infection with COVID-19 and is associated with thrombosis, elevated inflammatory markers, hemodynamic compromise and cardiac dysfunction. Treatment is often with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The pathologic basis of myocardial injury in MIS-A, however, is not well characterized. In our case report, we obtained endomyocardial biopsy that revealed a pattern of myocardial injury similar to that found in COVID-19 cardiac specimens. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old male presented with fevers, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea 5 weeks after his COVID-19 infection. His SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative and IgG was positive, consistent with prior infection. He was found to be in cardiogenic shock with biventricular failure, requiring inotropes and diuretics. Given concern for acute fulminant myocarditis, an endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) was performed, showing an inflammatory infiltrate consisting predominantly of interstitial macrophages with scant T lymphocytes. The histologic pattern was similar to that of cardiac specimens from COVID-19 patients, helping rule out myocarditis as the prevailing diagnosis. His case was complicated by persistent hypoxemia, and a computed tomography scan revealed pulmonary emboli. He received IVIg, steroids, and anticoagulation with rapid recovery of biventricular function. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-A should be considered as the diagnosis in patients presenting several weeks after COVID-19 infection with severe inflammation and multi-organ involvement. In our case, EMB facilitated identification of MIS-A and guided therapy. The patient's biventricular function recovered with IVIg and steroids.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adult , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage , Diagnosis, Differential , Diuretics/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Myocardium/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
7.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 4(6): 1-6, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a coagulopathy favouring thrombosis over bleeding that imparts a poor prognosis. Clot in transit (CIT) is considered a rare entity and the most severe form of venous thromboembolism (VTE), carrying a higher mortality than isolated pulmonary embolism (PE). The incidence of this phenomenon in patients with COVID-19 infection is unknown and likely under-recognized. CASE SUMMARY: During the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, a 70-year-old Hispanic female presented with syncope due to a saddle PE further complicated by a highly mobile CIT. Polymerase chain reaction was positive for COVID-19 infection, however, there was no evidence of lung parenchymal involvement or hyper-inflammation. Based on consensus from a multidisciplinary team, aspiration thrombectomy was attempted to treat this extreme case of VTE, however, the patient died during the procedure. DISCUSSION: This case raises awareness to the most catastrophic form of VTE, presenting in an early phase of COVID-19 infection without the typical hyper-inflammation and severe lung injury associated with development of COVID-related coagulopathy. It also serves to inform on the critical role echocardiography has in the comprehensive evaluation and re-evaluation of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and the importance of a multidisciplinary organized approach in clinical decision-making for this complex and poorly understood disease and its sequelae.

8.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 8(5)2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without the concomitant use of azithromycin have been widely used to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, based on early in vitro studies, despite their potential to prolong the QTc interval of patients. OBJECTIVE: This is a systematic review and metanalysis designed to assess the effect of hydroxychloroquine with or without the addition of azithromycin on the QTc of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and MedRxiv databases were reviewed. A random effect model meta-analysis was used, and I-square was used to assess the heterogeneity. The prespecified endpoints were ΔQTc, QTc prolongation > 500 ms and ΔQTc > 60 ms. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies and 7179 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The use of hydroxychloroquine with or without the addition of azithromycin was associated with increased QTc when used as part of the management of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The combination therapy with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin was also associated with statistically significant increases in QTc. Moreover, the use of hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or the combination of the two was associated with increased numbers of patients that developed QTc prolongation > 500 ms. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and metanalysis revealed that the use of hydroxychloroquine alone or in conjunction with azithromycin was linked to an increase in the QTc interval of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection that received these agents.

9.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(11): e007303, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are at risk for in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). It is unknown whether certain characteristics of cardiac arrest care and outcomes of IHCAs during the COVID-19 pandemic differed compared with a pre-COVID-19 period. METHODS: All patients who experienced an IHCA at our hospital from March 1, 2020 through May 15, 2020, during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and those who had an IHCA from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019 were identified. All patient data were extracted from our hospital's Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, a prospective hospital-based archive of IHCA data. Baseline characteristics of patients, interventions, and overall outcomes of IHCAs during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared with IHCAs in 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: There were 125 IHCAs during a 2.5-month period at our hospital during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with 117 IHCAs in all of 2019. IHCAs during the COVID-19 pandemic occurred more often on general medicine wards than in intensive care units (46% versus 33%; 19% versus 60% in 2019; P<0.001), were overall shorter in duration (median time of 11 minutes [8.5-26.5] versus 15 minutes [7.0-20.0], P=0.001), led to fewer endotracheal intubations (52% versus 85%, P<0.001), and had overall worse survival rates (3% versus 13%; P=0.007) compared with IHCAs before the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experienced an IHCA during the COVID-19 pandemic had overall worse survival compared with those who had an IHCA before the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings highlight important differences between these 2 time periods. Further study is needed on cardiac arrest care in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cardiology Service, Hospital , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 60(2): e14-e17, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436856

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 surge in New York City created an increased demand for palliative care (PC) services. In staff-limited settings such as safety net systems, and amid growing reports of health care worker illness, leveraging help from less-affected areas around the country may provide an untapped source of support. A national social media outreach effort recruited 413 telepalliative medicine volunteers (TPMVs). After expedited credentialing and onboarding of 67 TPMVs, a two-week pilot was initiated in partnership with five public health hospitals without any previous existing telehealth structure. The volunteers completed 109 PC consults in the pilot period. Survey feedback from TPMVs and on-site PC providers was largely positive, with areas of improvement identified around electronic health record navigation and continuity of care. This was a successful, proof of concept, and quality improvement initiative leveraging TPMVs from across the nation for a PC pandemic response in a safety net system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Palliative Care , Personnel Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Telemedicine , Volunteers , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , Electronic Health Records , Hospitals, Public , Humans , New York City , Palliative Care/methods , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Pandemics , Personnel Selection/methods , Pilot Projects , Proof of Concept Study , Quality Improvement , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration
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