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1.
PeerJ ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164155

ABSTRACT

The smartphone emerges as an inevitable gadget in modern society and its increased usage results in neck disorders among its users. However, the factors associated with neck disorders among smartphone users are ambiguous and less explored in the literature. The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of text neck posture, smartphone addiction/overuse, and its association with neck disorders among university students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 313 university students who were aged 18 years and older, owned a smartphone, and used it during the preceding 12 months participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding the prevalence of text neck posture, smartphone addiction/overuse, neck disorders, and the level of physical activity. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the association between the prevalence of neck disorders and text neck posture, smartphone addiction/overuse, and level of physical activity. The 12 months prevalence of neck disorders due to smartphone use among the participants was found to be 46%. The neck disorders were more prevalent among participants who reported text neck posture (P < 0.001) and categorized as smartphone-addicted/overuse (P < 0.001). Measures to promote the awareness of healthy use of smartphones including postural education and to decrease its screen time are warranted to reduce neck disorders.

2.
2022 IEEE Learning with MOOCS, LWMOOCS 2022 ; : 78-83, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152495

ABSTRACT

This research aims to develop a technology-driven educational application that will be a platform for providing interesting content to students. In light of the COVID-19 pan-demic, the objective of this redesign is to address the shortcomings of the current teaching strategy. In addition, survey and interview results supported the need for a revision of the current educational strategy. The proposed application employs Bloom's taxonomy quizzes to create a customized learning technique and structure content so that students can comprehend subjects more thoroughly. Visual Studio Code and the Ionic Framework were used for front-end development, while the Angular and PHP frameworks were utilized for the back-end. The program was reviewed using white box testing techniques and received positive feedback from users. In addition, it highlighted the possibility for sophisticated enhancements, such as the incorporation of learning styles, to improve the learning experiences of students. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147730

ABSTRACT

The global focus on curbing the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the overall immunization rates worldwide. This, coupled with increasing malnutrition and strained healthcare, has increased measles cases and mortality globally. Many countries are thus facing outbreaks, with Afghanistan having reported 372 deaths between January and September 2022. Therefore, Pakistan, a country in a similar economic state and the world's fourth highest reported measles cases in 2022, must take action. Moreover, the current flooded state of Pakistan and the subsequent mass movement of population, deterioration of health services, and worsened living conditions all contribute to put the country at a high risk of potentially devastating Measles outbreaks. With vaccination rates down by 42% since the start of the pandemic and the threat of an outbreak increasing daily, there is only so much time before the situation spirals out of control.

4.
2nd International Conference on Emerging Smart Technologies and Applications, eSmarTA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136164

ABSTRACT

The aim of this project is to construct portable smart farming management tools that could be helpful for the farmer involved in the pineapple industry. The project also aims to focus on the productivity of the plant by varying the fertilizer contents. During the Covid-19 pandemic that impacts all industries especially the agriculture industry, the farmers had an issue related to precision in terms of monitoring the soil condition of their crops due to limitations on the mobility of people across borders and lockdowns are contributing to labor shortages. Therefore, this study expected to look at the possibilities of the Smart Farming Management Tool Internet-of-Things based to be implemented in helping farmers to keep on track of the soil conditions in their crops via smartphones. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
Healthcare ; 10(12):2373, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2123585

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and their association with smartphone addiction and smartphone usage among university students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 313 university students aged 18 years and older who owned a smartphone and used it during the preceding 12 months participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of upper limb MSDs, smartphone addiction/overuse, and levels of physical activity were recorded using the standardized Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire, the smartphone addiction scale (short version), and the international physical activity questionnaire (short form), respectively. Data collection was performed on campus between March and May 2021. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the association between the prevalence of upper limb MSDs and smartphone addiction/overuse and levels of physical activity. The 12-month prevalence of MSDs of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist/hand regions due to smartphone use among participants was found to be 20.13%, 5.11%, and 13.42%, respectively. Shoulder (odds ratio (OR) = 11.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.64-27.94, p < 0.001), elbow (OR = 15.38, 95% CI = 1.92-123.26, p = 0.01), and wrist/hand MSDs (OR = 7.65, 95% CI = 2.75-21.22, p < 0.001) were more prevalent among participants who were categorized as having smartphone addiction/overuse measures. Promoting awareness about the healthy use of smartphones, including postural education and decreasing screen time, is necessary to reduce smartphone-related MSDs.

6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(7): 4023-4025, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119882

ABSTRACT

Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), is an acute peripheral neuropathy, a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome, that develops following exposure to different viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. Patients usually present with a triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. During Covid pandemic MFS has been described associated with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we describe the clinical course, Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, nerve conduction studies, treatment and outcome of the patient having MFS concurrent with COVID 19.

7.
Int J Immunogenet ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097758

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is pro-inflammatory disorder characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Interleukin-6, a cytokine secreted by macrophages, which mediates an inflammatory response, is frequently increased and associated with the severity in COVID-19 patients. The differential expression of IL6 cytokine in COVID-19 patients may be associated with the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in regulatory region of cytokine genes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of two promoter polymorphisms of the IL6 gene (-597G > A and -174G > C) with the severity of COVID-19. The study included 242 patients, out of which 97 patients with severe symptoms and 145 patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19. Genotyping of two selected SNPs, rs1800795 (-174G > C) and rs1800797 (-597G > A) of promoter region of IL6 gene, was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In our study, individuals with GC genotypes of IL6 (-174G > C) polymorphism showed significantly higher risk of severity [adjusted odds (OR) 3.86, p <.001] but we did not observe any association of COVID-19 severity with rs1800797 (-597G > A) polymorphism. The COVID-19 severity was significantly higher in individuals having 'C' allele of IL6 (-174G > C) polymorphism (p = .014). Linkage disequilibrium between rs1800795 (-174G > C) and rs1800797 (-597G > A) showed that individuals having AC* haplotype significantly association with COVID-19 severity (p = .034). Our results suggest that 'C' allele of rs1800795 (-174G > C) polymorphism of IL6 may be the risk allele for severity of COVID-19 in North Indian population.

8.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092432
10.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer ; 69:S526-S526, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2084240
11.
CMAJ ; 194(30): E1074-E1075, 2022 08 08.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082041
12.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):24-26, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067738

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the potential use of ivermectin with standard therapy among mild to moderate covid-19 illness. Methods: This is a single-centered, prospective observational, randomized, parallel group (1:1 ratio), standard versus controlled ivermectin study recruited 210 confirmed COVID-19 positive patients who were admitted in COVID treatment center of Dr Ruth Kum Pafu Civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan from 1st November 2020 to 30th May 2021. Data were analyzed using SPSS version Results: Total of 210 patients were enrolled in the study and aged matched patients were divided in two groups 105 patients received ivermectin 6 mg twice a day for five days along with standard therapy while remaining 105 patients received standard therapy as per local and international guidelines. Male were 140(66.7%) and female 70(33.3%);age ranges between 26 to 77 years and majority 140( 66.7%) were more than 50 years of age. Fever, dry cough and dyspnea were the major symptoms seen;112(53.3%) patients had DM as a comorbid illness . Total of 21(20%) of 105 patients of ivermectin group had negative PCR for COVID 19 on day seven while the other group had positive covid test in all of 105 patients . On day 10 total of 49 more patients from ivermectin group found COVID negative along with 21 previously negative had second PCR was found negative in this way total of 70( 66.7%) of ivermectin group had negative PCR for COVID 19 while 21(20%) patients from non ivermectin got negative PCR for COVID 19 on day 10 . Conclusion: Use of ivermectin with standard therapy clear the virus earlier than standard therapy in mild to moderate COVID-19 infected patients admitted in COVID treatment center of Dr Ruth Kum Pafu Civil Hospital Karachi.

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A361, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060573

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Treatment Debates in Critical Care SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm PURPOSE: Studies have reported various estimates of the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, with varying doses and types of anticoagulation used in each study. While patients hospitalized with COVID-19 may have a higher incidence of VTE, there may also be an increased incidence of bleeding. The risk of VTE needs to be weighed against the increased risk of bleeding when considering higher than standard dose prophylactic anticoagulation. This review examines the incidence and risk of thromboembolism and major bleeding in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia across randomized controlled trials. METHODS: Online databases including PubMed, CINAHL, Ovid, and Cochrane were searched from the inception of literature through January 11th, 2022, following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. Only articles published in the English language were included. s, case reports, and case series were excluded from this systematic analysis. Out of 168 studies, 8 randomized controlled trials were selected for a systematic review. RESULTS: In the 8 studies considered for this review, a total of 4,913 COVID patients were randomized to either prophylactic or therapeutic dose anticoagulation. Thrombotic events, major bleeding, and overall mortality were set as endpoints. Seven out of eight studies used heparin/low molecular weight heparin and only one used rivaroxaban. All except one study (Perepu et. al) reported a lower percentage of thrombotic events in the therapeutic group. Similarly, all except one study (Sholzberg et. al) reported a higher percentage of major bleed in the therapeutic group. In 4 out of 8 studies higher overall mortality was reported in the therapeutic group. However, only two values reported were statistically significant. Syropoulos et al reported a lower thrombotic event percentage in the therapeutic group with a p-value of <0.001% and Sholzberg et al reported a lower mortality percentage in the therapeutic group with the p-value of 0.006%. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID is a double-edged sword, decreased incidence of thrombotic events and an increased incidence of major bleeding was seen in the patients on therapeutic dose anticoagulation. Only one study reported a statistically significant decreased mortality in the therapeutic group and none of the studies reported a statistically significant major bleeding in the therapeutic group. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Based on the finding of this study we would recommend against the use of therapeutic anticoaguation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Faiz Anwer No relevant relationships by Ahmed Elkhapery No relevant relationships by Unaiza Faizan No relevant relationships by Deeptanshu Jain

14.
PeerJ ; 10: e14076, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056269

ABSTRACT

Background: Bell's palsy is an idiopathic facial nerve dysfunction causing temporary paralysis of muscles of facial expression. This study aimed to determine the incidence rate, common risk factors, and preferred treatment by the Saudi patients with Bell's palsy. Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Qurayyat region of Saudi Arabia. The retrospective medical records were searched from 2015-2020 of patients diagnosed with Bell's palsy at Qurayyat General Hospital and King Fahad hospital. A 28-item questionnaire was developed by a team of experts and pre-tested among patients with Bell's palsy before being sent to the eligible participants. The data were analyzed using summary statistics, Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Likelihood ratio test. Results: We identified 279 cases of Bell's palsy from the medical records of the hospitals from the years 2015 to 2020, accounting for 46.5 cases per year and an incidence rate of 25.7 per 100,000 per year. Out of 279 patients with Bell's palsy, only 171 returned the questionnaire accounting for a response rate of 61.2%. Out of 171 patients with Bell's palsy, females (n = 147, 86.0%) accounted for the majority of cases. The most affected age group among participants with Bell's palsy was 21-30 years (n = 76, 44.4%). There were 153 (89.5%) cases who reported Bell's palsy for the first time. The majority of the participants experienced right-sided facial paralysis (n = 96, 56.1%). Likelihood ratio test revealed significant relationship between exposure to cold air and common cold with age groups (χ 2(6, N = 171) = 14.92, p = 0.021), χ 2(6, N = 171) = 16.35, pp = 0.012 respectively. The post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the age group of 20-31-years were mostly affected due to exposure to cold air and common cold than the other age groups. The main therapeutic approach preferred was physiotherapy (n = 149, 87.1%), followed by corticosteroids and antivirals medications (n = 61, 35.7%), acupressure (n = 35, 20.5%), traditional Saudi herb medicine (n = 32, 18.7%), cauterization by hot iron rod (n = 23, 13.5%), supplementary therapy (n = 2, 1.2%), facial cosmetic surgery (n = 1, 0.6%) and no treatment (n = 1, 0.6%). The most preferred combined therapy was physiotherapy (87.6%) with corticosteroid and antiviral drugs (35.9%), and acupressure (17.6%). Conclusion: The rate of Bell's palsy was approximately 25.7 per 100,000 per year in the Qurayyat region of Saudi Arabia. Exposure to cold air and common cold were the significant risk factors associated with Bell's palsy. Females were predominantly affected by Bell's palsy in the Qurayyat region of Saudi Arabia. Bell's palsy most commonly occurred in the age group 21-30 years. The most favored treatment was physiotherapy following Bell's palsy.

15.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043599

ABSTRACT

Circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) has been found in the plasma of severely ill COVID-19 patients and is now known as a strong predictor of mortality. However, the underlying mechanism of mtDNA release is unexplored. Here, we show a novel mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-mediated pro-inflammatory/pro-apoptotic mtDNA release and a rational therapeutic stem cell-based approach to mitigate these effects. We systematically screened the effects of 29 SARS-CoV-2 proteins on mitochondrial damage and cell death and found that NSP4 and ORF9b caused extensive mitochondrial structural changes, outer membrane macropore formation, and the release of inner membrane vesicles loaded with mtDNA. The macropore-forming ability of NSP4 was mediated through its interaction with BCL2 antagonist/killer (BAK), whereas ORF9b was found to inhibit the anti-apoptotic member of the BCL2 family protein myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1) and induce inner membrane vesicle formation containing mtDNA. Knockdown of BAK and/or overexpression of MCL1 significantly reversed SARS-CoV-2-mediated mitochondrial damage. Therapeutically, we engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a simultaneous knockdown of BAK and overexpression of MCL1 (MSCshBAK+MCL1) and named these cells IMAT-MSCs (intercellular mitochondrial transfer-assisted therapeutic MSCs). Upon co-culture with SARS-CoV-2-infected or NSP4/ORF9b-transduced airway epithelial cells, IMAT-MSCs displayed functional intercellular mitochondrial transfer (IMT) via tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). The mitochondrial donation by IMAT-MSCs attenuated the pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic mtDNA release from co-cultured epithelial cells. Our findings thus provide a new mechanistic basis for SARS-CoV-2-induced cell death and a novel therapeutic approach to engineering MSCs for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , DNA, Mitochondrial , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 274, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038848

ABSTRACT

Acute neuropsychiatric impairments occur in over 70% of patients with acute lung injury. Mechanical ventilation is a well-known precipitant of acute lung injury and is strongly associated with the development of acute delirium and anxiety phenotypes. In prior studies, we demonstrated that IL-6 mediates neuropathological changes in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of animals with mechanical ventilation-induced brain injury; however, the effect of systemic IL-6 inhibition on structural and functional acute neuropsychiatric phenotypes is not known. We hypothesized that a murine model of mechanical ventilation-induced acute lung injury (VILI) would induce neural injury to the amygdala and hippocampus, brain regions that are implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric conditions, and corresponding delirium- and anxiety-like functional impairments. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these structural and functional changes would reverse with systemic IL-6 inhibition. VILI was induced using high tidal volume (35 cc/kg) mechanical ventilation. Cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) expression was quantified as a neural injury marker and found to be significantly increased in the VILI group compared to spontaneously breathing or anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mice with 10 cc/kg tidal volume. VILI mice treated with systemic IL-6 inhibition had significantly reduced amygdalar and hippocampal CC3 expression compared to saline-treated animals and demonstrated amelioration in acute neuropsychiatric behaviors in open field, elevated plus maze, and Y-maze tests. Overall, these data provide evidence of a pathogenic role of systemic IL-6 in mediating structural and functional acute neuropsychiatric symptoms in VILI and provide preclinical justification to assess IL-6 inhibition as a potential intervention to ameliorate acute neuropsychiatric phenotypes following VILI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Delirium , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury , Acute Lung Injury/complications , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Delirium/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-6 , Mice , Phenotype , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/pathology
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