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Diabetes ; 71(4): 788-794, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643401


Admission hyperglycemia has emerged worldwide as a predictor of poor coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome. Hyperglycemia leads to a defect in circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), which, in turn, predicts diabetic complications. Here, we explored whether reduced HSPCs mediated at least part of the prognostic effect of hyperglycemia on COVID-19 outcome. We found that patients with COVID-19 (n = 100) hospitalized in a nonintensive setting displayed dramatically (50-60%) reduced levels of HSPCs measured by flow cytometry as CD34+, CD34+CD45dim, or CD34+CD133+ cells, compared with control subjects (n = 595). This finding was highly significant (all P < 10-10) after multivariable adjustment, or manual 1:1 patient match, or propensity score matching. Admission hyperglycemia (≥7.0 mmol/L) was present in 45% of patients, was associated with a significant further ∼30% HSPCs reduction, and predicted a 2.6-fold increased risk of the primary outcome of adverse COVID-19 course (admittance to the intensive care unit or death). Low HSPCs were also associated with advanced age, higher peak C-reactive protein, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Independently from confounders, 1 SD lower CD34+ HSPCs was associated with a more than threefold higher risk of adverse outcome. Upon formal analysis, reduction of HSPCs was a significant mediator of the admission hyperglycemia on COVID-19 outcome, being responsible for 28% of its prognostic effect.

COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Antigens, CD34/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/metabolism
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 168: 108374, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714006


AIMS: We investigated whether pre-existing diabetes, newly-diagnosed diabetes, and admission hyperglycemia were associated with COVID-19 severity independently from confounders. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on patients with COVID-19 hospitalized between February and April 2020 in an outbreak hospital in North-East Italy. Pre-existing diabetes was defined by self-reported history, electronic medical records, or ongoing medications. Newly-diagnosed diabetes was defined by HbA1c and fasting glucose. The primary outcome was a composite of ICU admission or death. RESULTS: 413 subjects were included, 107 of whom (25.6%) had diabetes, including 21 newly-diagnosed. Patients with diabetes were older and had greater comorbidity burden. The primary outcome occurred in 37.4% of patients with diabetes compared to 20.3% in those without (RR 1.85; 95%C.I. 1.33-2.57; p < 0.001). The association was stronger for newly-diagnosed compared to pre-existing diabetes (RR 3.06 vs 1.55; p = 0.004). Higher glucose level at admission was associated with COVID-19 severity, with a stronger association among patients without as compared to those with pre-existing diabetes (interaction p < 0.001). Admission glucose was correlated with most clinical severity indexes and its association with adverse outcome was mostly mediated by a worse respiratory function. CONCLUSION: Newly-diagnosed diabetes and admission hyperglycemia are powerful predictors of COVID-19 severity due to rapid respiratory deterioration.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Age of Onset , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(10): 1946-1950, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642711


Because other coronaviruses enter the cells by binding to dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4), it has been speculated that DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) may exert an activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In the absence of clinical trial results, we analysed epidemiological data to support or discard such a hypothesis. We retrieved information on exposure to DPP-4is among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) hospitalized for COVID-19 at an outbreak hospital in Italy. As a reference, we retrieved information on exposure to DPP-4is among matched patients with T2D in the same region. Of 403 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 85 had T2D. The rate of exposure to DPP-4is was similar between T2D patients with COVID-19 (10.6%) and 14 857 matched patients in the region (8.8%), or 793 matched patients in the local outpatient clinic (15.4%), 8284 matched patients hospitalized for other reasons (8.5%), and when comparing 71 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia (11.3%) with 351 matched patients with pneumonia of another aetiology (10.3%). T2D patients with COVID-19 who were on DPP-4is had a similar disease outcome as those who were not. In summary, we found no evidence that DPP-4is might affect hospitalization for COVID-19.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology