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1.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(SI2): SI136-SI142, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with APS and triple-positive for aPL are at high risk of recurrent events. As COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination may induce thrombotic complications, the objective of the study was to assess the course of COVID-19 and adverse events after vaccination in these patients. METHODS: This is a nationwide multicentre survey conducted in nine APS referral centres by means of a questionnaire. Included patients are thrombotic APS with triple-positive aPL confirmed 12 weeks apart. Reference specialist physicians used a four-graded scale of severity for COVID-19 [from 0 (asymptomatic) to 3 (hospitalization in intensive care unit)] and a six-graded scale for adverse reactions to vaccination [from 0 (transient local injection site sign/symptoms) to 5 (potentially life-threatening reactions)]. Outcomes were considered within a 30-day period. RESULTS: Out of 161 patients interviewed, 18 (11%) had COVID-19. All of them fully recovered without any progression to severe disease nor thromboembolic event. A total of 146 patients received the first (92%) and 129 (80%) the second dose of vaccine; side effects were minimal and, in most cases (83% after the first and 68% after the second vaccination) limited to a sore arm. Fifteen patients (9%) were unvaccinated. Most of them raised doubts on the need for vaccination, complained of poor safety and in general were reluctant about COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSION: Patients with triple-positive thrombotic APS did not suffer from severe COVID-19 outcomes. Importantly, COVID-19 vaccination was well tolerated. These data may reassure patients and physicians and contribute to reducing hesitancy in unvaccinated patients.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Hemato ; 3(1):204-219, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1732001

ABSTRACT

In some patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces cytokine storm, hypercoagulability and endothelial cell activation leading to worsening of COVID-19, intubation and death. Prompt identification of patients at risk of intubation is an urgent need. Objectives. To derive a prognostic score for the risk of intubation or death in patients with COVID-19 admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), by assessing biomarkers of hypercoagulability, endothelial cell activation and inflammation and a large panel of clinical analytes. Design, Setting and Participants. A prospective, observational study enrolled 118 patients with COVID-19 admitted in the ICU. On the first day of ICU admission, all patients were assessed for biomarkers (protein C, protein S, antithrombin, D-Dimer, fibrin monomers, FVIIa, FV, FXII, FXII, FVIII, FvW antigen, fibrinogen, procoagulant phospholipid dependent clotting time, TFPI, thrombomodulin, P-selectin, heparinase, microparticles exposing TF, IL-6, complement C3a, C5a, thrombin generation, PT, aPTT, hemogram, platelet count) and clinical predictors. Main Outcomes and Measures. The clinical outcomes were intubation and mortality during hospitalization in ICU. Results: The intubation and mortality rates were 70% and 18%, respectively. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU score composed of P-Selectin, D-Dimer, free TFPI, TF activity, IL-6 and FXII, age and duration of hospitalization predicted the risk of intubation or death with high sensitivity and specificity (0.90 and 0.92, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance. COVID-19 is related to severe endothelial cell activation and hypercoagulability orchestrated in the context of inflammation. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU risk assessment model is accurate for the evaluation of the risk of mechanical ventilation and death in patients with critical COVID-19. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU score is feasible in tertiary hospitals and could be placed in the diagnostic procedure of personalized medical management and prompt therapeutic intervention.

3.
Case Rep Crit Care ; 2022: 6804456, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708675

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia is an uncommon complication of COVID-19 vaccines using adenovirus mRNA carriers and has been associated with thrombosis of the cerebral venous sinuses and portal system. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman admitted to the intensive care unit due to stroke caused by thrombosis of the right carotid artery 9 days after receiving the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine. Further investigations demonstrated multiple thrombi in the arterial tree in the absence of any venous involvement. The clinical course and the treatment are described and discussed.

4.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2021(1): 710-717, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566502

ABSTRACT

Both myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are characterized by an intrinsic thrombotic risk. Little is known about the incidence and the outcome of thrombotic events in patients with MPN infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but common mechanisms of coagulation activation, typical of both disorders, suggest that these patients can be at particularly high risk. To define the best thromboprophylaxis and treatment regimens in both MPN and COVID-19, individual- and disease-specific thrombotic risk factors, bleeding risk, and concomitant specific treatments need to be considered. In this case-based review, an individualized approach is presented in a case of SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring in a man with polycythemia vera (PV). A primary anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis strategy and adjustment of his PV treatment were implemented. However, during the hospital stay, he experienced pulmonary embolism and therapeutic anticoagulation had to be set. Then his condition improved, and discharge was planned. Postdischarge decisions had to be made about the type and duration of venous thromboembolism treatment as well as the management of PV-specific drugs. The steps of our decisions and recommendations are presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myeloproliferative Disorders/complications , Polycythemia Vera/complications , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Myeloproliferative Disorders/blood , Myeloproliferative Disorders/drug therapy , Polycythemia Vera/blood , Polycythemia Vera/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/blood
6.
TH Open ; 5(3): e253-e263, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483194

ABSTRACT

Introduction Endothelial damage and hypercoagulability are major players behind the hemostatic derangement of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Aim In this prospective study we assessed endothelial and inflammatory biomarkers in a cohort of COVID-19 patients, aiming to identify predictive factors of in-hospital mortality. Methods COVID-19 patients hospitalized in intensive care (ICU) and non-ICU units at 2 Bergamo (Italy) hospitals from March 23 to May 30, 2020, were enrolled. Markers of endothelium activation including von-Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), and fibrinolytic proteins (t-PA and PAI-1) were measured. Additionally, D-dimer, Fibrinogen, FVIII, nucleosomes, C reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin were assessed. Results Sixty-three (45 ICU, and 18 non-ICU) patients, with a median age of 62 years were analyzed. Increased plasma levels of D-dimer, FVIII, fibrinogen, nucleosomes, CRP, and procalcitonin were observed in the whole cohort. Extremely elevated vWF levels characterized all patients (highest values in ICU-subjects). After a median time of 30 days, death occurred in 13 (21%) patients. By multivariable analysis, vWF-activity, neutrophil-count and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly associated with death. Using these variables, a linear score with 3-risk groups was generated that provided a cumulative incidence of death of 0% in the low-, 32% in the intermediate-, and 78% in the high-risk group. Conclusions COVID-19-induced hemostatic abnormalities are exacerbated by the severity of the disease and strongly correlate with the inflammatory status, underlying the link between coagulation, endothelial activation, and inflammation. Our study provides evidence for a role of vWF, together with neutrophils and PaO2/FiO2, as a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality by SARSCoV-2 infection.

8.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):36-36, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1338963

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION The occurrence of a hypercoagulable state in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is supported by studies conducted with routine coagulation tests, including plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen, and platelet count.AIM In this study we performed an extensive characterization of the hemostatic alterations by both global and specific assays in a cohort of 78 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The aims were to: 1) clarify mechanisms underlying the coagulopathy, and 2) identify predictive factors of disease severity and thrombotic events (i.e. deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism [PE] or arterial thromboembolism [ATE]).METHODS COVID-19 patients admitted to the Hospital Papa Giovanni XXIII in Bergamo, Italy, from March 23 to May 30, 2020, were enrolled prospectively, providing informed consent. As a global assay, thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed in whole blood by EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM tests. Specific assays included plasma levels of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway coagulation factors, von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and activity, anticoagulant proteins (i.e. protein C [PC], free-protein S [PS], and antithrombin [AT]), fibrinolytic proteins (i.e. tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA], and inhibitor [PAI-1]), and hypercoagulation biomarkers (i.e. prothrombin fragment 1+2 [F1+2], and D-dimer). In addition, biomarkers of immunoinflammation (i.e. neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs], CRP and procalcitonin) were measured. Occurrence of thrombotic events and death were monitored during follow up.RESULTS 78 patients (56M/22F), median age 62.7 years (25-87), were analyzed. According to disease severity, 45 were ICU, and 33 non-ICU patients. Sixty-three of them were on thromboprophylaxis. Global hemostasis analysis by ROTEM showed a prothrombotic profile in patients compared to controls, with a significantly shorter clot formation time (CFT), and increased maximum clot firmness (MCF), which were significantly greater in the ICU vs non-ICU patients. The occurrence of an 'in vivo' hypercoagulable state was confirmed by increased plasma levels of F1+2 and D-dimer, with the highest values of D-dimer in the ICU subjects. Hypercoagulability, rather than factors' consumption, was also shown by the findings of significantly higher plasma procoagulant factors V, VIII, IX and fibrinogen in ICU compared to non-ICU patients (p<0.001). Endothelium activation was shown by extremely elevated vWF antigen and activity levels in all patients (highest values in ICU subjects). Moreover, the concentrations of fibrinolytic proteins, t-PA, and its inhibitor PAI-1, were elevated (p<0.01) in patients compared to normal controls, without difference between ICU and non-ICU subjects. Finally, the inflammatory parameters' analysis in the ICU group demonstrated significantly increased plasma levels of NETs, CRP, and procalcitonin, compared to non-ICU patients. Of note, NETs levels significantly (p<0.02) correlated with vWF, D-dimer and t-PA, while CRP and procalcitonin inversely correlated with anticoagulant PC.After a median time of 8.8 days, 19 (24%) patients experienced thrombosis (3 DVT, 8 PE, 8 ATE). Thirteen (17%) patients from total population died after a median time of 33 days of hospitalization. Baseline D-dimer and t-PA levels were significantly higher in patients developing VTE, while baseline FVIII, vWF and D-dimer levels were greater in subjects who died during follow-up. By Cox analysis, high D-dimer and younger age were significantly associated with mortality.CONCLUSIONS Our study provides for the first time an extensive overview of the hypercoagulable state induced by SARSCoV-2 infection, demonstrating alterations in all of the different hemostatic compartments analyzed. The viral infection-induced hemostatic abnormalities are exacerbated by the severity of the disease and strongly correlate with the proinflammatory status, demonstrating the link between coagulation and inflammation. This link is further supported by the clear correlation found between NETosis and markers of endothelial and blood clotting act vation. Finally, these data add evidence to the role of D-dimer as a significant predictor of intra-hospital mortality.

9.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 992-1007, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One year after the declaration of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) and despite the implementation of mandatory physical barriers and social distancing, humanity remains challenged by a long-lasting and devastating public health crisis. MANAGEMENT: Non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) are efficient mitigation strategies. The success of these NPIs is dependent on the approval and commitment of the population. The launch of a mass vaccination program in many countries in late December 2020 with mRNA vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines, and inactivated virus vaccines has generated hope for the end of the pandemic. CURRENT ISSUES: The continuous appearance of new pathogenic viral strains and the ability of vaccines to prevent infection and transmission raise important concerns as we try to achieve community immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants. The need of a second and even third generation of vaccines has already been acknowledged by the WHO and governments. PERSPECTIVES: There is a critical and urgent need for a balanced and integrated strategy for the management of the COVID-19 outbreaks organized on three axes: (1) Prevention of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, (2) Detection and early diagnosis of patients at risk of disease worsening, and (3) Anticipation of medical care (PDA). CONCLUSION: The "PDA strategy" integrated into state policy for the support and expansion of health systems and introduction of digital organizations (i.e., telemedicine, e-Health, artificial intelligence, and machine-learning technology) is of major importance for the preservation of citizens' health and life world-wide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 711915, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317228

ABSTRACT

Passive antibody therapy has been used to treat outbreaks of viral disease, including the ongoing pandemic of severe respiratory acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19. However, the real benefits of the procedure are unclear. We infused a concentrated solution of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies obtained from a convalescent donor with a single session of double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) into a 56-year-old woman with long history of unremitting, severe COVID-19. She was unable to establish an adequate antiviral immune response because of previous chemotherapy, including the infusion of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, administered to treat a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The disease promptly recovered despite evidence of no endogenous anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody production. The observation that passive antibody therapy might prove particularly effective in immunodepressed COVID-19 patients requires evaluation in prospective randomized controlled trial.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Plasmapheresis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rituximab/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 102, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic affecting all countries in the world. Italy has been particularly afflicted by the health emergency, and since the peak phase has passed, major concern regarding medium to long term complications due to COVID-19 is arising. Little is known in literature regarding thromboembolic complications once healed after COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old patient recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by pulmonary embolism (PE) came to the hospital for palpitations and chest pain. Although he was on treatment dose of direct oral anticoagulation (DOAC), massive recurrent PE was diagnosed. CONCLUSION: In the early post COVID-19 era, the question remains regarding the efficacy of DOACs in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Dabigatran/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Recurrence , Warfarin/therapeutic use
15.
Panminerva Med ; 63(1): 51-61, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Findings from February 2020, indicate that the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 can be heterogeneous, probably due to the infectious dose and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 within the first weeks of the outbreak. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of overall 28-day mortality at the peak of the Italian outbreak. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of all COVID-19 patients admitted to the main hospital of Bergamo, from February 23 to March 14, 2020. RESULTS: Five hundred and eight patients were hospitalized, predominantly male (72.4%), mean age of 66±15 years; 49.2% were older than 70 years. Most of patients presented with severe respiratory failure (median value [IQR] of PaO2/FiO2: 233 [149-281]). Mortality rate at 28 days resulted of 33.7% (N.=171). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), 9.5% with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and 13.6% with endotracheal intubation. 9.5% were admitted to Semi-Intensive Respiratory Care Unit, and 18.9% to Intensive Care Unit. Risk factors independently associated with 28-day mortality were advanced age (≥78 years: odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.91 [10.67-141.93], P<0.001; 70-77 years: 17.30 [5.40-55.38], P<0.001; 60-69 years: 3.20 [1.00-10.20], P=0.049), PaO2/FiO2<200 at presentation (3.50 [1.70-7.20], P=0.001), need for CPAP/NIV in the first 24 hours (8.38 [3.63-19.35], P<0.001), and blood urea value at admission (1.01 [1.00-1.02], P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: At the peak of the outbreak, with a probable high infectious dose and viral load, older age, the severity of respiratory failure and renal impairment at presentation, but not comorbidities, are predictors of 28-day mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(12): 1597-1628, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759630

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is also manifested with hypercoagulability, pulmonary intravascular coagulation, microangiopathy, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) or arterial thrombosis. Predisposing risk factors to severe COVID-19 are male sex, underlying cardiovascular disease, or cardiovascular risk factors including noncontrolled diabetes mellitus or arterial hypertension, obesity, and advanced age. The VAS-European Independent Foundation in Angiology/Vascular Medicine draws attention to patients with vascular disease (VD) and presents an integral strategy for the management of patients with VD or cardiovascular risk factors (VD-CVR) and COVID-19. VAS recommends (1) a COVID-19-oriented primary health care network for patients with VD-CVR for identification of patients with VD-CVR in the community and patients' education for disease symptoms, use of eHealth technology, adherence to the antithrombotic and vascular regulating treatments, and (2) close medical follow-up for efficacious control of VD progression and prompt application of physical and social distancing measures in case of new epidemic waves. For patients with VD-CVR who receive home treatment for COVID-19, VAS recommends assessment for (1) disease worsening risk and prioritized hospitalization of those at high risk and (2) VTE risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban, betrixaban, or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for those at high risk. For hospitalized patients with VD-CVR and COVID-19, VAS recommends (1) routine thromboprophylaxis with weight-adjusted intermediate doses of LMWH (unless contraindication); (2) LMWH as the drug of choice over unfractionated heparin or direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of VTE or hypercoagulability; (3) careful evaluation of the risk for disease worsening and prompt application of targeted antiviral or convalescence treatments; (4) monitoring of D-dimer for optimization of the antithrombotic treatment; and (5) evaluation of the risk of VTE before hospital discharge using the IMPROVE-D-dimer score and prolonged post-discharge thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban, betrixaban, or LMWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Europe , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Societies, Medical , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(23): 2950-2973, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-547082

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, because of excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, the authors review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, of those with pre-existing thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral , Thromboembolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
18.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(7): 1004-1024, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-418767

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), currently a worldwide pandemic, is a viral illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The suspected contribution of thrombotic events to morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients has prompted a search for novel potential options for preventing COVID-19-associated thrombotic disease. In this article by the Global COVID-19 Thrombosis Collaborative Group, we describe novel dosing approaches for commonly used antithrombotic agents (especially heparin-based regimens) and the potential use of less widely used antithrombotic drugs in the absence of confirmed thrombosis. Although these therapies may have direct antithrombotic effects, other mechanisms of action, including anti-inflammatory or antiviral effects, have been postulated. Based on survey results from this group of authors, we suggest research priorities for specific agents and subgroups of patients with COVID-19. Further, we review other agents, including immunomodulators, that may have antithrombotic properties. It is our hope that the present document will encourage and stimulate future prospective studies and randomized trials to study the safety, efficacy, and optimal use of these agents for prevention or management of thrombosis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glycosaminoglycans/therapeutic use , Hemostasis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/immunology
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