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1.
Eur Respir J ; 59(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869041

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected >160 million individuals to date, and has caused millions of deaths worldwide, at least in part due to the unclarified pathophysiology of this disease. Identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms of COVID-19 is critical to overcome this pandemic. Metabolites mirror the disease progression of an individual and can provide extensive insights into their pathophysiological significance at each stage of disease. We provide a comprehensive view of metabolic characterisation of sera from COVID-19 patients at all stages using untargeted and targeted metabolomic analysis. As compared with the healthy controls, we observed different alteration patterns of circulating metabolites from the mild, severe and recovery stages, in both the discovery cohort and the validation cohort, which suggests that metabolic reprogramming of glucose metabolism and the urea cycle are potential pathological mechanisms for COVID-19 progression. Our findings suggest that targeting glucose metabolism and the urea cycle may be a viable approach to fight COVID-19 at various stages along the disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Metabolomics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Energy Reports ; 8:437-446, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1867096

ABSTRACT

A prediction method of electricity consumption is developed in order to address the problems of big change and imbalance in electricity consumption caused by COVID-19. In this method, BP (Back Propagation) neural network and improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm are combined and applied. Firstly, Pearson correlation coefficient approach is utilized to conduct data correlation analysis. Then, the BP neural network prediction model is built, and IPSO algorithm is used to optimize the neural network’s initial weights and thresholds. Considering the medical data, public opinion data, policy data and historical data of electricity consumption during epidemic period, the electricity consumption of each industry in the future is predicted. The findings suggest that the proposed model performs well in terms of prediction. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) for each industry’s evaluation index is 1.41%, 1.70 %, and 1.37 %, respectively. Compared with other models, the prediction accuracy is higher. By exploring the predicted results of electricity consumption during epidemic period, it is hoped that a basis prediction method of electricity consumption for power grid companies in the event of a sudden outbreak will be provided.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325219

ABSTRACT

In the middle of March, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection a global pandemic. While China experienced a dramatic decline in daily growth rate of COVID-19, multiple importations of new cases from other countries and their related local infections caused a rapid rise. Between March 12 and April 15, we collected nasopharyngeal samples from 109 imported cases from 25 countries and 69 local cases in Guangzhou, China. In order to characterize the transmission patterns and genetic evolution of this virus among different populations, we sequenced the genome of SARS-CoV-2. The imported viral strains were assigned to lineages distributed in Europe (33.0%), America (17.4%), Africa (25.7%), or Southeast/West Asia (23.9%). Importantly, 10 imported cases from Africa formed two novel sub-lineages not identified in global tree previously. A detailed analysis showed that the imported viral strains from Philippines and Pakistan were closely related and within the same sub-lineage, whereas Ethiopia had varied lineages in the African phylogenetic tree. In spite of the diversity of imported SARS-CoV-2, 60 of 69 local infections could be traced back to two specific small lineages imported from Africa. A combined genetic and epidemiological analysis revealed a high-resolution transmission network of the imported SARS-CoV-2 in local communities, which might help inform the public health response and genomic surveillance in other cities and regions. Finally, we observed in-frame deletions on seven loci of SARS-CoV-2 genome, some of which were intra-host mutations, and they exhibited no enrichment on the S protein. Our findings provide new insight into the viral phylodynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and beta coronavirus.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313360

ABSTRACT

The resurgence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been seen in many counties where outbreaks appear to be leveling off. While China experienced a dramatic decline of COVID-19 at the outset of 2020, regional outbreaks continuously emerged in recent months. In Guangzhou, a small outbreak emerged in March and April involving less than 100 residents, and a comprehensive and near-real-time genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 was conducted. When confirmed cases among overseas travelers increased, public health authorities enhanced measures as shifting self-quarantine to central quarantine and SARS-CoV-2 testing for all overseas travelers. From 109 imported cases we found diverse viral variants distributing in the global viral phylogeny, which were usually shared within households but not among passengers on the same flight. Nonetheless, local transmission was predominately attributed to two specific variants imported from Africa, including the local cases who reported no direct/indirect contact with imported cases. The introducing events of the virus were identified or deduced before enhanced measures were taken. These results show that the interventions are effective in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and also rule out the possibility of cryptic transmission of viral variants from the first wave in January and February. Moreover, we found that intra-host viral diversity was usually different between close contacts, implying a transmission bottleneck of SARS-CoV-2. Our study provides evidence and emphasizes the importance of controls for oversea travelers in the context of the pandemic, and exemplifies how viral genomic data facilitates COVID-19 surveillance and prevention.Funding: This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31870079, 91953122, 31871326), National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2017ZX10103011, 2018ZX10305410, 2018ZX10201001), Guangdong Provincial Novel Coronavirus Scientific and Technological Project (2020111107001), Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2020A1515010776 and 2020B1515020057) and the Beijing Nova Program (Z181100006218114 and Z181100006218110) to M.N. and P.L..Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the ethics committee of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of Guangzhou (GZCDC-ECHR-2020P0002). Written informed consent was obtained from patients about the surveillance and data related to disease control and further analysis. All information regarding individual persons has been anonymized in this study.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(50)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555255

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), binds to host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through its spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. However, the expression of ACE2 is extremely low in a variety of human tissues, especially in the airways. Thus, other coreceptors and/or cofactors on the surface of host cells may contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we identified nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYH9) as an important host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection of human pulmonary cells by using APEX2 proximity-labeling techniques. Genetic ablation of MYH9 significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in wild type (WT) A549 and Calu-3 cells, and overexpression of MYH9 enhanced the pseudovirus infection in WT A549 and H1299 cells. MYH9 was colocalized with the SARS-CoV-2 S and directly interacted with SARS-CoV-2 S through the S2 subunit and S1-NTD (N-terminal domain) by its C-terminal domain (designated as PRA). Further experiments suggested that endosomal or myosin inhibitors effectively block the viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 into PRA-A549 cells, while transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and cathepsin B and L (CatB/L) inhibitors do not, indicating that MYH9 promotes SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis and bypasses TMPRSS2 and CatB/L pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of MYH9 reduces authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection in Calu-3, ACE2-A549, and ACE2-H1299 cells. Together, our results suggest that MYH9 is a candidate host factor for SARS-CoV-2, which mediates the virus entering host cells by endocytosis in an ACE2-dependent manner, and may serve as a potential target for future clinical intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Myosin Heavy Chains/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Myosin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Myosin Heavy Chains/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS Virus/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
6.
Eur Respir J ; 59(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320527

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected >160 million individuals to date, and has caused millions of deaths worldwide, at least in part due to the unclarified pathophysiology of this disease. Identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms of COVID-19 is critical to overcome this pandemic. Metabolites mirror the disease progression of an individual and can provide extensive insights into their pathophysiological significance at each stage of disease. We provide a comprehensive view of metabolic characterisation of sera from COVID-19 patients at all stages using untargeted and targeted metabolomic analysis. As compared with the healthy controls, we observed different alteration patterns of circulating metabolites from the mild, severe and recovery stages, in both the discovery cohort and the validation cohort, which suggests that metabolic reprogramming of glucose metabolism and the urea cycle are potential pathological mechanisms for COVID-19 progression. Our findings suggest that targeting glucose metabolism and the urea cycle may be a viable approach to fight COVID-19 at various stages along the disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Metabolomics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Food and Agricultural Immunology ; 31(1):849-858, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1152988

ABSTRACT

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is a problem of great concern. Current methods of detection require large instruments and need specific test sites. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a fast, convenient, and accurate detection method for AFM1. We established a system based on fluorescent microspheres containing a Eu<sup>3+</sup> chelate named AFM1-POCT. These components comprised the AFM1-POCT kits. After refrigeration at 4 degrees C for 12 months, the intra and inter assay coefficients of variability (CVs) for the kits were 4% and 5%, respectively. AFM1-POCT compared well with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) determination in the range 0.0121-2 g/kg (paired samples test, P > 0.05). Aflatoxin B1 and G1 do not react with aflatoxin M1. By using the AFM1-POCT method, the detection time is shortened to 5 min, the accuracy is comparable to that of UHPLC, and convenience and range of application are improved.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 223(4): 568-580, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immune protective mechanisms during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection remain to be deciphered for the development of an effective intervention approach. METHODS: We examined early responses of interleukin 37 (IL-37), a powerful anti-inflammatory cytokine, in 254 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients before any clinical intervention and determined its correlation with clinical prognosis. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes elevation of plasma IL-37. Higher early IL-37 responses were correlated with earlier viral RNA negative conversion, chest computed tomographic improvement, and cough relief, consequently resulted in earlier hospital discharge. Further assays showed that higher IL-37 was associated with lower interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8) and higher interferon α responses and facilitated biochemical homeostasis. Low IL-37 responses predicted severe clinical prognosis in combination with IL-8 and C-reactive protein. In addition, we observed that IL-37 administration was able to attenuate lung inflammation and alleviate respiratory tissue damage in human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that IL-37 plays a protective role by antagonizing inflammatory responses while retaining type I interferon, thereby maintaining the functionalities of vital organs. IL-37, IL-8, and C-reactive protein might be formulated as a precise prediction model for screening severe clinical cases and have good value in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Interleukin-1/blood , Adult , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Middle Aged
9.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(6): 25-31, 2020 Dec.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100319

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted first-line medical staff as well as nursing-student clinical practicum programs. How to cooperate with the government's pandemic-prevention policies and reduce the gap between education and clinical practice represent significant challenges. In this paper, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology (CCUST) is used as an example to show how schools in Taiwan have effectively adapted the fundamentals of nursing practicum programs to the current pandemic using e-learning, group discussions, case analysis, clinical skill practice, and clinical case simulation scenario exercises. The program at CCUST both takes into account the safety of students and has achieved all critical nursing practice goals. After implementation of these adjustments, satisfaction among nursing students with the practicum environment and the clinical instructors was found to be significantly higher for the on-campus clinical practicum than for the off-campus clinical practicum. Furthermore, the results of qualitative data analyses show that nursing students in the on-campus practicum gained significant knowledge and experience and commented positively on their experience. For example, the students indicated that they were satisfied with the simulated clinical environment of the CCC, the teaching strategies and adaptability of the instructor, and the application of virtual reality scenario cases to enhance skill proficiency and learning outcomes. The adjusted nursing clinical practicum described in this paper may be used as a reference to ensure the quality of nursing clinical practicum programs is maintained during epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan
10.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 31-38, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084475

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed an unprecedented threat to health care providers (HCPs) in Wuhan, China, especially for nurses who were frequently exposed to infected or suspected patients. Limited information was available about the working experience of nurses in fighting against the pandemic. To learn the physical and psychological responses of nurses during the pandemic and explore the potential determinants, we conducted a large-scale survey in Wuhan. This multicenter cross-sectional study enrolled 5521 nurses who worked in designated hospitals, mobile cabins, or shelters during the pandemic. A structured online questionnaire was distributed to assess the physical discomforts, emotional distress and cognitive reactions of nurses at work, and the log-binomial regression analysis was performed to explore potential determinants. A considerable proportion of nurses had symptoms of physical discomforts [3677 (66.6%)] and emotional distress [4721 (85.5%)]. Nurses who were directly involved in the care of patients (i.e., care for severe patients: RR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.95-2.84), with irregular work schedules (RR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.95-2.87), and working overtime (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.08-1.65) were at a higher risk for physical discomforts. Nurses who were directly involved in the care of patients (i.e., care for severe patients: RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.40-2.29), with irregular work schedules (RR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.43-4.73), and working overtime (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.12-2.04) were at a higher risk for emotional distress. Therefore, formulating reasonable work schedules and improving workforce systems are necessary to alleviate the physical and emotional distress of nurses during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Nurses/psychology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Workload/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Cell ; 184(3): 775-791.e14, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014394

ABSTRACT

The molecular pathology of multi-organ injuries in COVID-19 patients remains unclear, preventing effective therapeutics development. Here, we report a proteomic analysis of 144 autopsy samples from seven organs in 19 COVID-19 patients. We quantified 11,394 proteins in these samples, in which 5,336 were perturbed in the COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Our data showed that cathepsin L1, rather than ACE2, was significantly upregulated in the lung from the COVID-19 patients. Systemic hyperinflammation and dysregulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism were detected in multiple organs. We also observed dysregulation of key factors involved in hypoxia, angiogenesis, blood coagulation, and fibrosis in multiple organs from the COVID-19 patients. Evidence for testicular injuries includes reduced Leydig cells, suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis, and sperm mobility. In summary, this study depicts a multi-organ proteomic landscape of COVID-19 autopsies that furthers our understanding of the biological basis of COVID-19 pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Proteome/biosynthesis , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Organ Specificity
12.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(6):25-31, 2020.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-955085

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted first-line medical staff as well as nursing-student clinical practicum programs. How to cooperate with the government's pandemic-prevention policies and reduce the gap between education and clinical practice represent significant challenges. In this paper, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology (CCUST) is used as an example to show how schools in Taiwan have effectively adapted the fundamentals of nursing practicum programs to the current pandemic using e-learning, group discussions, case analysis, clinical skill practice, and clinical case simulation scenario exercises. The program at CCUST both takes into account the safety of students and has achieved all critical nursing practice goals. After implementation of these adjustments, satisfaction among nursing students with the practicum environment and the clinical instructors was found to be significantly higher for the on-campus clinical practicum than for the offcampus clinical practicum. Furthermore, the results of qualitative data analyses show that nursing students in the on-campus practicum gained significant knowledge and experience and commented positively on their experience. For example, the students indicated that they were satisfied with the simulated clinical environment of the CCC, the teaching strategies and adaptability of the instructor, and the application of virtual reality scenario cases to enhance skill proficiency and learning outcomes. The adjusted nursing clinical practicum described in this paper may be used as a reference to ensure the quality of nursing clinical practicum programs is maintained during epidemics.

13.
Huanjing yu Zhiye Yixue = Journal of Environmental & Occupational Medicine ; 37(9):862, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-908406

ABSTRACT

[Background] The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 has brought many adverse effects on the study, daily life, graduation, and job hunting of college students. Research data related to the sleep quality and stress load of college students are insufficient in the context of pandemic prevention and control. [Objective] This study investigates college students' sleep quality and stress load during the coronavirus disease pandemic, and provide evidence for adjusting their sleep quality and stress load. [Methods] Using convenience sampling method, college students from a university in Zhejiang Province were asked to complete the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Stress Overload Scale (SOS) on Wenjuanxing, an online questionnaire survey platform. There were 932 valid questionnaires out of 1 000 questionnaires recovered, and the valid recovery rate was 93.20%. The PSQI and SOS scores were analyzed by t test and analysis of variance respectively, the correlation by Pearson correlation analysis, and the factors affecting the sleep quality of college students by multiple logistic regression analysis. [Results] The respondents' PSQI score (7.90±2.88) was higher than that of the domestic university student norm during non-pandemic period (5.11±3.22, n=733) (t=10.34, P < 0.001). Moreover, 402 students showed a total PSQI score ≤ 7 (good sleep quality) (43.13%), and 530 students' score >7 (poor sleep quality) (56.87%). The respondents' SOS score was 70.41±9.87, including 265 high-stress (highest risk) students (28.43%), 229 challenged (low risk) (24.57%), 233 fragile (low risk) (25.00%), and 205 low-stress (lowest risk) (22.00%). The PSQI score and SOS score varied among the college students across different grades (both P < 0.001), and between those from severely or non-severely inflicted areas (both P < 0.001). With the increase of SOS score, PSQI score increased, and there was a positive correlation between them (r=0.542, P < 0.001). The multiple logistic regression analysis results showed that students from severe epidemic areas, sophomores to seniors, and students with high stress load showed poor sleep quality during the pandemic (all P < 0.001). [Conclusion] During the pandemic, the college students' sleep quality is low, and the greater their pressure load, the worse their sleep quality. Whether they come from a severely affected area, grade, and stress load are important factors affecting their sleep quality in the context of the current pandemic.

14.
Huanjing yu Zhiye Yixue = Journal of Environmental & Occupational Medicine ; 37(9):858, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-908405

ABSTRACT

[Background] During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019, college students had some negative emotion and psychological pressure. Solution-focused approach can improve mental state and provide new ideas for improving positive emotion and stress management of college students during the pandemic. [Objective] The study evaluates the effect of solution-focused approach on enhancing the positive emotion of college students during the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019. [Methods] A total of 406 college students were recruited and screened with anxiety selfassessment scale. Among them 142 had anxiety symptoms, accounting for 34.98%, and were randomly divided into a solution-focused intervention group and a control group, with 71 in each group and grouped by Wechat. Both the groups had necessary Wechat group communication. In addition, the intervention group received solution-focused intervention related questions in the chat group everyday and sent back answers via voice or text. Upon receiving answers, the researchers would give brief and positive feedback to the students and answer their questions in private messages, 15 min a day, for 7 days. Before and after the intervention, positive and negative emotions, simple coping styles, and anxiety were evaluated to compare the emotional changes between the two groups. [Results] In terms of positive emotion, the difference of scores before and after the intervention in the intervention group (3.37±0.58) was higher than that in the control group (0.35±0.17) (t=22.17, P < 0.001). In terms of negative emotion, the difference of scores before and after the intervention in the intervention group (-4.35±0.66) was lower than that in the control group (-0.86±0.24) (t=27.32, P < 0.001). Regarding positive coping style, the difference of scores before and after in the intervention group (2.31±0.82) was higher than that in the control group (0.38±0.08) (t=17.18, P < 0.001). Regarding negative coping style, the difference of scores before and after in the intervention group (-2.36±0.61) was lower than that in the control group (-0.42±0.11) (t=24.20, P < 0.001). The difference of anxiety score before and after the intervention in the intervention group (-12.98±3.75) was lower than that in the control group (-3.49±1.16) (t=22.719, P < 0.001). [Conclusion] The solution-focused intervention using WeChat platform is effective and convenient in enhancing the positive emotion and positive coping style of college students with anxiety symptoms during the pandemic, and relieve anxiety symptoms.

15.
World J Virol ; 9(3): 38-46, 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) happened in early December and it has affected China in more ways than one. The societal response to the pandemic restricted medical students to their homes. Although students cannot learn about COVID-19 through clinical practice, they can still pay attention to news of COVID-19 through various channels. Although, as suggested by previous studies, some medical students have already volunteered to serve during the COVID-19 pandemic, the overall willingness of Chinese medical students to volunteer for such has not been systematically examined. AIM: To study Chinese medical students' interest in the relevant knowledge on COVID-19 and what roles they want to play in the pandemic. METHODS: Medical students at Peking Union Medical College were surveyed via a web-based questionnaire to obtain data on the extent of interest in the relevant knowledge on COVID-19, attitude towards volunteerism in the pandemic, and career preference. Logistic regression modeling was used to investigate possible factors that could encourage volunteerism among this group in a pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 552 medical students responded. Most medical students showed a huge interest in COVID-19. The extent of students' interest in COVID-19 varied among different student-classes (P < 0.05). Senior students had higher scores than the other two classes. The number of people who were 'glad to volunteer' in COVID-19 represented 85.6% of the respondents. What these students expressed willingness to undertake involved direct, indirect, and administrative job activities. Logistic regression analysis identified two factors that negatively influenced volunteering in the pandemic: Student-class and hazards of the voluntary job. Factors that positively influenced volunteering were time to watch COVID-19 news, predictable impact on China, and moral responsibility. CONCLUSION: More innovative methods can be explored to increase Chinese medical students' interest in reading about the relevant knowledge on COVID-19 and doing voluntary jobs during the pandemic.

17.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1368

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of international concern. About 5·0% of infected patients had severe lung i

18.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(1): 71-78, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-775497

ABSTRACT

Importance: Lymphopenia is common and correlates with poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To determine whether a therapy that increases peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte cell counts leads to clinical improvement in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting and Participants: Between February 18 and April 10, 2020, we conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial at 3 participating centers in China. The main eligibility criteria were pneumonia, a blood lymphocyte cell count of 800 per µL (to convert to ×109/L, multiply by 0.001) or lower, and no comorbidities. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was confirmed with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. Exposures: Usual care alone, or usual care plus 3 doses of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF, 5 µg/kg, subcutaneously at days 0-2). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the time from randomization to improvement of at least 1 point on a 7-category disease severity score. Results: Of 200 participants, 112 (56%) were men and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 45 (40-55) years. There was random assignment of 100 patients (50%) to the rhG-CSF group and 100 (50%) to the usual care group. Time to clinical improvement was similar between groups (rhG-CSF group median of 12 days (IQR, 10-16 days) vs usual care group median of 13 days (IQR, 11-17 days); hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.95-1.71; P = .06). For secondary end points, the proportion of patients progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, or septic shock was lower in the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF group, 2% vs usual care group, 15%; difference, -13%; 95%CI, -21.4% to -5.4%). At 21 days, 2 patients (2%) had died in the rhG-CSF group compared with 10 patients (10%) in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95%CI, 0.04-0.88). At day 5, the lymphocyte cell count was higher in the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF group median of 1050/µL vs usual care group median of 620/µL; Hodges-Lehmann estimate of the difference in medians, 440; 95% CI, 380-490). Serious adverse events, such as sepsis or septic shock, respiratory failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, occurred in 29 patients (14.5%) in the rhG-CSF group and 42 patients (21%) in the usual care group. Conclusion and Relevance: In preliminary findings from a randomized clinical trial, rhG-CSF treatment for patients with COVID-19 with lymphopenia but no comorbidities did not accelerate clinical improvement, but the number of patients developing critical illness or dying may have been reduced. Larger studies that include a broader range of patients with COVID-19 should be conducted. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000030007.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Hematologic Agents/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , China , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Recombinant Proteins , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/physiopathology , Shock, Septic/physiopathology , Time Factors
19.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 597-601, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695683

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, COVID-19 was firstly recognized in Wuhan, China and spread rapidly to all of the provinces of China. The West Campus of Wuhan Union Hospital, the designated hospital to admit and treat the severe and critically ill COVID-19 cases, has treated a large number of such patients with great success and obtained lots of valuable experiences based on the Chinese guideline (V7.0). To standardize and share the treatment procedures of severe and critically ill cases, Wuhan Union Hospital has established a working group and formulated an operational recommendation, including the monitoring, early warning indicators, and several treatment principles for severe and critically ill cases. The treatment experiences may provide some constructive suggestions for treating the severe and critically ill COVID-19 cases all over the world.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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