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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 146, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890151

ABSTRACT

With the constantly mutating of SARS-CoV-2 and the emergence of Variants of Concern (VOC), the implementation of vaccination is critically important. Existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines mainly include inactivated, live attenuated, viral vector, protein subunit, RNA, DNA, and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines. Viral vector vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, and mRNA vaccines may induce additional cellular or humoral immune regulations, including Th cell responses and germinal center responses, and form relevant memory cells, greatly improving their efficiency. However, some viral vector or mRNA vaccines may be associated with complications like thrombocytopenia and myocarditis, raising concerns about the safety of these COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we systemically assess the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, including the possible complications and different effects on pregnant women, the elderly, people with immune diseases and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), transplant recipients, and cancer patients. Based on the current analysis, governments and relevant agencies are recommended to continue to advance the vaccine immunization process. Simultaneously, special attention should be paid to the health status of the vaccines, timely treatment of complications, vaccine development, and ensuring the lives and health of patients. In addition, available measures such as mix-and-match vaccination, developing new vaccines like nanoparticle vaccines, and optimizing immune adjuvant to improve vaccine safety and efficacy could be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 855496, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809400

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) constitutes a major worldwide public health threat and economic burden. The pandemic is still ongoing and the SARS-CoV-2 variants are still emerging constantly, resulting in an urgent demand for new drugs to treat this disease. Molnupiravir, a biological prodrug of NHC (ß-D-N(4)-hydroxycytidine), is a novel nucleoside analogue with a broad-spectrum antiviral activity against SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Ebola virus (EBOV). Molnupiravir showed potent therapeutic and prophylactic activity against multiple coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV in animal models. In clinical trials, molnupiravir showed beneficial effects for mild to moderate COVID-19 patients with a favorable safety profile. The oral bioavailability and potent antiviral activity of molnupiravir highlight its potential utility as a therapeutic candidate against COVID-19. This review presents the research progress of molnupiravir starting with its discovery and synthesis, broad-spectrum antiviral effects, and antiviral mechanism. In addition, the preclinical studies, antiviral resistance, clinical trials, safety, and drug tolerability of molnupiravir are also summarized and discussed, aiming to expand our knowledge on molnupiravir and better deal with the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(2): e91, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541058

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528819

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), places a heavy burden on global public health. Four SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern including B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.617.2, and P.1, and two variants of interest including C.37 and B.1.621 have been reported to have potential immune escape, and one or more mutations endow them with worrisome epidemiologic, immunologic, or pathogenic characteristics. This review introduces the latest research progress on SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest and concern, key mutation sites, and their effects on virus infectivity, mortality, and immune escape. Moreover, we compared the effects of various clinical SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and convalescent sera on epidemic variants, and evaluated the neutralizing capability of several antibodies on epidemic variants. In the end, SARS-CoV-2 evolution strategies in different transmission stages, the impact of different vaccination strategies on SARS-CoV-2 immune escape, antibody therapy strategies and COVID-19 epidemic control prospects are discussed. This review will provide a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the secret of SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest/concern and immune escape.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Aging Dis ; 11(2): 216-228, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102674

ABSTRACT

A coronavirus (HCoV-19) has caused the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China. Preventing and reversing the cytokine storm may be the key to save the patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess a comprehensive powerful immunomodulatory function. This study aims to investigate whether MSC transplantation improves the outcome of 7 enrolled patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Beijing YouAn Hospital, China, from Jan 23, 2020 to Feb 16, 2020. The clinical outcomes, as well as changes of inflammatory and immune function levels and adverse effects of 7 enrolled patients were assessed for 14 days after MSC injection. MSCs could cure or significantly improve the functional outcomes of seven patients without observed adverse effects. The pulmonary function and symptoms of these seven patients were significantly improved in 2 days after MSC transplantation. Among them, two common and one severe patient were recovered and discharged in 10 days after treatment. After treatment, the peripheral lymphocytes were increased, the C-reactive protein decreased, and the overactivated cytokine-secreting immune cells CXCR3+CD4+ T cells, CXCR3+CD8+ T cells, and CXCR3+ NK cells disappeared in 3-6 days. In addition, a group of CD14+CD11c+CD11bmid regulatory DC cell population dramatically increased. Meanwhile, the level of TNF-α was significantly decreased, while IL-10 increased in MSC treatment group compared to the placebo control group. Furthermore, the gene expression profile showed MSCs were ACE2- and TMPRSS2- which indicated MSCs are free from COVID-19 infection. Thus, the intravenous transplantation of MSCs was safe and effective for treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially for the patients in critically severe condition.

6.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2055-2066, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969528

ABSTRACT

Clinical and laboratory data on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Beijing, China, remain extremely limited. In this study, we summarized the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 from a designated hospital in Beijing. In total, 55 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Beijing 302 Hospital were enrolled in this study. Demographic data, symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory values, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected and retrospectively analyzed. A total of 15 (27.3%) patients had severe symptoms, the mean age was 44.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 34.0-56.0), and the median incubation period was 7.5 days (IQR, 5.0-11.8). A total of 26 (47.3%) patients had exposure history in Wuhan of less than 2 weeks, whereas 20 (36.4%) patients were associated with familial clusters. Also, eighteen (32.7%) patients had underlying comorbidities including hypertension. The most common symptom of illness was fever (45; 81.8%); 51 (92.7%) patients had abnormal findings on chest computed tomography. Laboratory findings showed that neutrophil count, percentage of lymphocyte, percentage of eosinophil, eosinophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, albumin, and serum ferritin are potential risk factors for patients with a poor prognosis. A total of 26 patients (47.3%) were still hospitalized, whereas 29 (52.7%) patients had been discharged. Compared with patients in Wuhan, China, the symptoms of patients in Beijing are relatively mild. Older age, more comorbidities, and more abnormal prominent laboratory markers were associated with a severe condition. On the basis of antiviral drugs, it is observed that antibiotics treatment, appropriate dosage of corticosteroid, and gamma globulin therapy significantly improve patients' outcomes. Early identification and timely medical treatment are important to reduce the severity of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , China , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Disease/therapy , Coronary Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Eosinophils/pathology , Eosinophils/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fever/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/virology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Blood Purif ; 50(1): 57-64, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-580103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With an estimated basic reproductive number of 3.77, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread. It is urgent to exert adequate efforts for the management of dialysis patients, caregivers, and healthcare personnel (HCP). This study aimed at reporting practical workflow, identification of high-risk or suspected cases of CO-VID-19, and subsequent response measures. METHODS: At the time of the COVID-19 outbreak, precautions and practice protocols were applied in our dialysis units (DUs). This single-center study retrospectively reviewed all high-risk/suspected cases from January 23, 2020, to February 10, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical feature, and detailed data on all cases were recorded. RESULTS: Practical workflow for the clinical management of dialysis patients, caregivers, and HCP was initiated. A total of 6 high-risk/suspected cases were identified. Female gender, older age, presence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, anuresis, immunocompromised status, hypoalbuminemia, and underweight were noticeable features in these cases. Direct evidence of infection or epidemiological risk was detected in five cases. Close monitoring for temperature and oxygen saturation during hemodialysis sessions may be reasonable. No confirmed COVID-19 cases were reported in our DU, but certain cases showed rapid deterioration due to other critically severe condition needing hospitalization. Portable dialysis machines are of great need to ensure dialysis care provision. CONCLUSIONS: Our study described a practical workflow for patient-centered management during COVID-19 outbreak. Potential risk factors and underlying clinical patterns were reported. Further studies regarding the efficacy of infection control precautions and practice protocols tailored for dialysis settings are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis/methods , Retrospective Studies
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