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2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 681372, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365533

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is critical in tumor development. C-type (Ca2+ -dependent) lectin (CLEC) receptors, essential in innate pattern recognition, have potential regulatory effects on immune cell trafficking and modulatory effects on cancer cell activity. However, information on the expression and prognostic value of CLECs in HCC is scanty. Herein, we explored the potential role of CLECs in HCC based on TCGA, ONCOMINE, GEPIA, UALCAN, cBioPortal, Metascape, TRRUST, and TIMER databases. Results demonstrated a significantly higher mRNA level of CLEC4A and CLEC4L in HCC tissues than normal liver tissues. Contrarily, we found significantly low CLEC4G/H1/H2/M expression in HCC tissues. The IHC analysis revealed the following: Absence of CLEC4A/J/K/M in normal and liver cancer tissues; high CLEC4C expression in HCC tissues; low expression and zero detection of CLEC4D/E/H1/H2/L in HCC tissues and normal tissues, respectively. And the HepG2 and LX-2 were used to verify the expression level of CLEC4s via qRT-PCR in vitro. Furthermore, the expression of CLEC4H1 (ASGR1) and CLEC4H2 (ASGR2) exhibited a significant relation to clinical stages. However, the expression of CLEC4A, CLEC4D, CLEC4E, CLEC4J (FCER2), CLEC4K (CD207), CLEC4G, CLEC4H1, CLEC4M, and CLEC4H2 decreased with tumor progression. Patients expressing higher CLEC4H1/H2 levels had longer overall survival than patients exhibiting lower expression. Moreover, CLEC4A/D/E/J/K/G/H1/M/H2 had significant down-regulated levels of promoter methylation. The expression level of CLEC4s was correlated with the infiltration of B cells, CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, macrophage cells, neutrophil cells, and dendritic cells. Functional analysis revealed the potential role of CLECL4s in virus infection, including COVID-19. Also, hsa-miR-4278 and hsa-miR-324-5p, two potential miRNA targets of CLEC4s, were uncovered. This article demonstrates that CLEC4 is crucial for the development of HCC and is associated with infiltration of various immune cells, providing evidence for new immunotherapy targets in HCC.

3.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2365-2373, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease. Our understanding of the clinical characteristics of liver damage and the relationship with disease severity in COVID-19 is still limited. To investigate the serum hepatic enzyme activities in different phenotypes of COVID-19 patients, evaluate their relationship with the illness severity and analyze the correlation of glycyrrhizin treatment and abnormal liver enzyme activities, one hundred and forty-seven patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in a retrospective study that investigated hepatic dysfunction. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), Y-glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed in these patients. Patients with diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) treatment were further investigated. Of the 147 patients, 56 (38.1%) had abnormal ALT activity and 80 (54.4%) had abnormal AST activity. The peak of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities occurred at 3 to 6 days after on admission. Serum AST and LDH levels were elevated, while the SOD level was decreased in severe and critical patients, compared with mild cases. DG treatment may alleviate the abnormal liver enzyme activities in non-critical COVID-19 patients. Abnormal liver functions may be observed in patients with COVID-19, and were associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute liver damage. Glycyrrhizin treatment may be an effective therapeutic approach for the outcome of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities in severe COVID-19 cases. Serum hepatic enzyme tests may reflect the illness severity and should be monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , Liver/enzymology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Young Adult
4.
Clin Chim Acta ; 517: 48-53, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still spreading worldwide, which may progress to pulmonary fibrosis (PF), leading to the worsen outcome. As the markers of lung injury, the correlation of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and fibronectin (Fn) with pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 was still unclear. METHODS: 113 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 were enrolled in this retrospective study, and divided into three categories as mild, moderate and severe cases. The concentrations of serum KL-6 and Fn at hospital admission were tested using the method of latex agglutination assay and immunoturbidimetic assay, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with that in the non-severe COVID-19 cases and normal control subjects, serum KL-6 concentration on admission was significantly higher in the severe group, which was positively correlated with C-reactive protein, and negatively correlated with lymphocytes count. Whereas, no obvious elevation in serum Fn concentration was investigated in COVID-19 patients with the different phenotypes. The severe cases displayed the higher incident rate of pulmonary fibrosis at hospital discharge. Compared with non-PF patients, the COVID-19 cases with PF had the higher serum KL-6 values. CONCLUSION: Serum KL-6 concentration was significantly elevated in severe COVID-19 patients, which may be useful for evaluating the disease severity. For early prevention of the development of pulmonary fibrosis, high concentrations of serum KL-6 in the early stage of COVID-19 should be paid close attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibronectins/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
5.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20231936

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHigh prevalence of myopia of adolescent has been a global public health concern. Their risk factors and effective prevention methods for myopia across schoolchildren developmental stages are critically needed but remain uncertain due to the difficulty in implementing intervention measurements under normal life situation. We aimed to study the impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on myopia development among over one-million schoolchildren. MethodsWe designed the ongoing longitudinal project of Myopic Epidemiology and Intervention Study (MEIS) to biannually examine myopia among millions of schoolchildren for ten years in Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, China. In the present study, we performed three examinations of myopia in 1,305 elementary and high schools for schoolchildren in June 2019, December 2019 and June 2020. We used the normal period (June-December 2019) and COVID-19 quarantine period (January-June 2020) for comparisons. Myopia was defined as an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/25 or less and a spherical equivalent refraction (SER) of -0.5 diopters (D) or less. High myopia was defined as an SER of -6.0 D or less. FindingsIn June 2019, 1,001,749 students aged 7-18 were eligible for examinations. In the 6-month and 12-month follow-up studies, there were 813,755 eligible students (81.2%) and 768,492 eligible students (76.7%), respectively. Among all students, we found that half-year myopia progression increased approximate 1.5 times from -0.263 D (95% CI, -0.262 to -0.264) during normal period to -0.39 D (95% CI, -0.389 to -0.391) during COVID-19 quarantine (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified grade rather than age was significantly associated with myopia (Hazard ratio [HR]: 1.10, 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.13; P < 0.001) and high myopia (HR: 1.40, 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.46; P < 0.001) after adjustment for other factors. The prevalence, progression, and incidence of myopia and high myopia could be categorized into two grade groups: I (grades 1-6) and II (grades 7-12). Specifically, COVID-19 quarantine for 6 months sufficiently increased risk of developing myopia (OR: 1.36, 95% CI, 1.33 to 1.40) or high myopia (OR: 1.30, 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.39) in Grade Group I, but decreased risk of developing myopia (OR: 0.45, 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.48) or high myopia (OR: 0.57, 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.59) in Grade Group II. InterpretationThe finding that behavioral modifications for six months during COVID-19 quarantine sufficiently and grade-specifically modify myopia development offers the largest human behavioral intervention data at the one million scale to identify the grade-specific causal factors and effective prevention methods for guiding the formulation of myopia prevention and control policies. FundingKey Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China; the National Natural Science Foundation of China; Scientific Research Foundation for Talents of Wenzhou Medical University; Key Research and Development Program of Zhejiang Province. Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSMyopia is the most-common refractive error worldwide. Myopia with younger onset may result in developing high myopia, which is associated with sight-threatening ocular diseases such as maculopathy, retinal detachment, opticneuropathy, glaucoma, retinal atrophy, choroidal neovascularization. In light of the increasing prevalence of myopia and high myopia has been a global public health concern, the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on myopia development has gained substantial attention. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE databases for original articles reported between database inception and November 10, 2020, using the following search terms: (coronavirus OR COVID* OR SARS-COV-2 OR lockdown OR quarantine) AND (myopia OR short-sightedness OR refractive error). To date, there was no original study reported to uncover the influence of COVID-19 quarantine on myopia progression. Added value of this studyThis study provides the largest longitudinal intervention data on myopia progression in Chinese schoolchildren covering all grades of schoolchildren at one-million scale. COVID-19 quarantine model uncovers that behavioral modifications for six months may lead to significant increase of overall prevalence of myopia associated with their increased screen times and decreased outdoor activity times. Importantly, their effects on developing myopia or high myopia of students are grade-dependent, which were risk factors for elementary schools period but protective factors for high schools period partly due to reduced school education burden. Implications of all the available evidenceThis one-million schoolchildren myopia survey offers evidence that six months behavioral modifications sufficiently and grade-specifically change the progression of myopia and high myopia. In view of the increased use of electronic devices is an unavoidable trend, effective myopia prevention strategy according to grade among students is urgently needed. Since COVID-19 outbreak is still ongoing and spreading, international collaborate efforts are warranted to uncover the influence of COVID-19 on myopia progression to further substantiate these findings.

6.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1298

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), currently impacts over 100 countries. Soluble ST2 (sST2) is secreted and detectab

7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20024398

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, Chinese authorities reported a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China1. A novel strain of coronavirus named Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated and identified on 2 January 2020 2. Human-to-human transmission have been confirmed by a study of a family cluster and have occurred in health-care workers 3,4. Until 10 February 2020, 42638 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been confirmed in China, of which 31728 came from Hubei Province (Figure). Wenzhou, as a southeast coastal city with the most cases outside Hubei Province, its policy control and epidemic projections have certain references for national and worldwide epidemic prevention and control. We described the epidemiologic characteristics of COVID-19 in Wenzhou and made a transmission model to predict the expected number of cases in the coming days.

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