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Front Microbiol ; 13: 693196, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809431


Infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) causes considerable economic losses to poultry production. The data on transmission dynamics of IBV in China are limited. The complete genome sequences of 212 IBV isolates in China during 1985-2020 were analyzed as well as the characteristics of the phylogenetic tree, recombination events, dN/dS ratios, temporal dynamics, and phylogeographic relationships. The LX4 type (GI-19) was found to have the highest dN/dS ratios and has been the most dominant genotype since 1999, and the Taiwan-I type (GI-7) and New type (GVI-1) showed an increasing trend. A total of 59 recombinants were identified, multiple recombination events between the field and vaccine strains were found in 24 isolates, and the 4/91-type (GI-13) isolates were found to be more prone to being involved in the recombination. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses indicated that the Chinese IBVs originated from Liaoning province in the early 1900s. The LX4-type viruses were traced back to Liaoning province in the late 1950s and had multiple transmission routes in China and two major transmission routes in the world. Viral phylogeography identified three spread regions for IBVs (including LX4 type) in China: Northeastern China (Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Jilin), north and central China (Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong, and Jiangsu), and Southern China (Guangxi and Guangdong). Shandong has been the epidemiological center of IBVs (including LX4 type) in China. Overall, our study highlighted the reasons why the LX4-type viruses had become the dominant genotype and its origin and transmission routes, providing more targeted strategies for the prevention and control of IB in China.

Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077468


Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses massive economic losses in the global poultry industry. Here, we firstly report the construction and immunogenicity comparison of virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the S, M and E proteins (SME-VLPs); VLPs carrying the S and M proteins (SM-VLPs); and VLPs carrying the M and E proteins (ME-VLPs) from the dominant serotype representative strain GX-YL5 in China. The neutralizing antibody response induced by the SME-VLPs was similar to that induced by the inactivated oil vaccine (OEV) of GX-YL5, and higher than those induced by the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and commercial live vaccine H120. More importantly, the SME-VLPs elicited higher percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes than the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and OEV of GX-YL5. Compared with the OEV of GX-YL5, higher levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were also induced by the SME-VLPs. Moreover, the mucosal immune response (sIgA) induced by the SME-VLPs in the tear and oral swabs was comparable to that induced by the H120 vaccine and higher than that induced by the OEV of GX-YL5. In the challenge experiment, the SME-VLPs resulted in significantly lower viral RNA levels in the trachea and higher protection scores than the OEV of GX-YL5 and H120 vaccines, and induced comparable viral RNA levels in the kidneys, and tear and oral swabs to the OEV of GX-YL5. In summary, among the three VLPs, the SME-VLPs carrying the S, M and E proteins of IBV could stimulate the strongest humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses and provide effective protection, indicating that it would be an attractive vaccine candidate for IB.

Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 51(9):2257-2264, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-860154


For the sake of verifying the immunogenicity of candidate epitope-polypeptide, the B and T cell epitopes of S1 protein of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 strain were predicted and the corresponding epitope-polypeptides were synthesized, and then were used to immunize mice, the immune effect was analyzed. Five epitope-polypeptides against S1 protein of IBV H120 strain were selected by epitope prediction software and acquired by chemical synthesis, then were immunized to mice. The specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and T lymphocyte subsets induced by each epitope-polypeptides were analyzed by indirect ELISA, neutralization test and flow cytometry. The ELISA results showed that the five epitope-polypeptides had good reactivity. The antibody titers of antisera induced by the five epitope-polypeptides sorted from high to low as follows: Pep76-106, Pep240-257, Pep511-537, Pep403-421, Pep135-172. The neutralization test results showed that the neutralization titers of antisera induced by the five epitope-polypeptides groups in mice were higher than that of the blank control group, and the order of neutralization titers was Pep240-257 = Pep403-421 = Pep511-537 > Pep76-106 = Pep135-172. The flow cytometry results showed that the percentages of CD3+, CD4+CD8- and CD8+CD4- T lymphocytes in all the five epitope-polypeptides groups were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the blank control group. The number of the CD3+ and CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes sorted from large to small as follows: Pep403-421, Pep240-257, Pep76-106, Pep511-537 and Pep135-172. The number of the CD8+CD4- T lymphocytes sorted from large to small as follows: Pep403-421, Pep76-106, Pep511-537, Pep240-257 and Pep135-172. In conclusion, Pep240-257, Pep76-106 and Pep403-421 could induce humoral immunity among the five epitope-polypeptides, while Pep403-421 could induce cellular immunity. Thus, peptide of Pep403-421 could induce cellular immunity and humoral immunity. This study laid a foundation for further understanding the immunological characteristics of the S1 protein and the development of diagnostic reagents and effective epitope vaccines.