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1.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-463130

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the COVID-19 pandemic, is rapidly evolving. Due to the limited efficacy of vaccination in prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and continuous emergence of variants of concern (VOC), including the currently most prevalent Delta variant, orally bioavailable and broadly efficacious antiviral drugs are urgently needed. Previously we showed that adenosine analogue 69-0 (also known as GS-441524), possesses potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Herein, we report that esterification of the 5-hydroxyl moieties of 69-0 markedly improved the antiviral potency. The 5-hydroxyl-isobutyryl prodrug, ATV006, showed excellent oral bioavailability in rats and cynomolgus monkeys and potent antiviral efficacy against different VOCs of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture and three mouse models. Oral administration of ATV006 significantly reduced viral loads, alleviated lung damage and rescued mice from death in the K18-hACE2 mouse model challenged with the Delta variant. Moreover, ATV006 showed broad antiviral efficacy against different mammal-infecting coronaviruses. These indicate that ATV006 represents a promising oral drug candidate against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and other coronaviruses.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4876, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356557

ABSTRACT

While the printed circuit board (PCB) has been widely considered as the building block of integrated electronics, the world is switching to pursue new ways of merging integrated electronic circuits with textiles to create flexible and wearable devices. Herein, as an alternative for PCB, we described a non-printed integrated-circuit textile (NIT) for biomedical and theranostic application via a weaving method. All the devices are built as fibers or interlaced nodes and woven into a deformable textile integrated circuit. Built on an electrochemical gating principle, the fiber-woven-type transistors exhibit superior bending or stretching robustness, and were woven as a textile logical computing module to distinguish different emergencies. A fiber-type sweat sensor was woven with strain and light sensors fibers for simultaneously monitoring body health and the environment. With a photo-rechargeable energy textile based on a detailed power consumption analysis, the woven circuit textile is completely self-powered and capable of both wireless biomedical monitoring and early warning. The NIT could be used as a 24/7 private AI "nurse" for routine healthcare, diabetes monitoring, or emergencies such as hypoglycemia, metabolic alkalosis, and even COVID-19 patient care, a potential future on-body AI hardware and possibly a forerunner to fabric-like computers.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Precision Medicine/instrumentation , Textiles , Wearable Electronic Devices , Wireless Technology/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Design , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Precision Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sweat/physiology
3.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-353300

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly spreads across worldwide and becomes a global pandemic. Remdesivir is the only COVID-19 treatment approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); however, its effectiveness is still under questioning as raised by the results of a large WHO Solidarity Trial. Herein, we report that the parent nucleotide of remdesivir, GS-441524, potently inhibits the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Vero E6 and other cells. It exhibits good plasma distribution and longer half-life (t1/2=4.8h) in rat PK study. GS-441524 is highly efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 in AAV-hACE2 transduced mice and murine hepatitis virus (MHV) in mice, reducing the viral titers in CoV-attacked organs, without noticeable toxicity. Given that GS-441524 was the predominant metabolite of remdesivir in the plasma, the anti-COVID-19 effect of remdesivir may partly come from the effect of GS-441524. Our results also supported that GS-441524 as a promising and inexpensive drug candidate in the treatment of COVID-19 and future emerging CoVs diseases.

5.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1099-1107, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743962

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak has caused a serious global health emergency. Supporting evidence shows that COVID-19 shares a genomic similarity with other coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and that the pathogenesis and treatment strategies that were applied 17 years ago in combating SARS-CoV and other viral infections could be taken as references in today's antiviral battle. According to the clinical pathological features of COVID-19 patients, patients can suffer from five steps of progression, starting with severe viral infection and suppression of the immune system and eventually progressing to cytokine storm, multi-organ damage, and lung fibrosis, which is the cause of mortality. Therefore, early prevention of disease progression is important. However, no specific effective drugs and vaccination are currently available, and the World Health Organization is urging the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies. Traditional Chinese medicine could be used as an alternative treatment option or in combination with Western medicine to treat COVID-19, due to its basis on historical experience and holistic pharmacological action. Here, we summarize the potential uses and therapeutic mechanisms of Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) from the reported literature, along with patent drugs that have been recommended by institutions at the national and provincial levels in China, in order to verify their scientific foundations for treating COVID-19. In perspective, more basic and clinical studies with multiple high-tech and translational technologies are suggested to further confirm the therapeutic efficacies of CHFs.

6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 172, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733534

ABSTRACT

No effective drug treatments are available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Host-directed therapies targeting the underlying aberrant immune responses leading to pulmonary tissue damage, death, or long-term functional disability in survivors require clinical evaluation. We performed a parallel assigned controlled, non-randomized, phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate the safety of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) infusions in the treatment of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 pulmonary disease. The study enrolled 18 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n = 9 for each group). The treatment group received three cycles of intravenous infusion of UC-MSCs (3 × 107 cells per infusion) on days 0, 3, and 6. Both groups received standard COVID-treatment regimens. Adverse events, duration of clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters, length of hospitalization, serial chest computed tomography (CT) images, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, dynamics of cytokines, and IgG and IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed. No serious UC-MSCs infusion-associated adverse events were observed. Two patients receiving UC-MSCs developed transient facial flushing and fever, and one patient developed transient hypoxia at 12 h post UC-MSCs transfusion. Mechanical ventilation was required in one patient in the treatment group compared with four in the control group. All patients recovered and were discharged. Our data show that intravenous UC-MSCs infusion in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 is safe and well tolerated. Phase 2/3 randomized, controlled, double-blinded trials with long-term follow-up are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of UC-MSCs to reduce deaths and improve long-term treatment outcomes in patients with serious COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
7.
Nat Immunol ; 21(9): 1107-1118, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710376

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the relationship between disease severity and the host immune response is not fully understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of 5 healthy donors and 13 patients with COVID-19, including moderate, severe and convalescent cases. Through determining the transcriptional profiles of immune cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor and B cell receptor sequences, we analyzed the functional properties of immune cells. Most cell types in patients with COVID-19 showed a strong interferon-α response and an overall acute inflammatory response. Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ effector-GNLY (granulysin), CD8+ effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence in moderate patients. In severe patients, the immune landscape featured a deranged interferon response, profound immune exhaustion with skewed T cell receptor repertoire and broad T cell expansion. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of immune responses during disease progression.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/immunology , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis
8.
Chin Med ; 15: 70, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636611

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recently was declared a pandemic by world health organization (WHO) Due to sudden outbreaks, currently, no completely effective vaccine or drug is clinically approved. Several therapeutic strategies can be envisaged to prevent further mortality and morbidity. Based on the past contribution of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and immune-based therapies as a treatment option in crucial pathogen outbreaks, we aimed to summarize potential therapeutic strategies that could be helpful to stop further spread of SARS-CoV-2 by effecting its structural components or modulation of immune responses. Several TCM with or without modification could be effective against the structural protein, enzymes, and nucleic acid should be tested from available libraries or to identify their immune-stimulatory activities to enhance several antiviral biological agents for effective elimination of SARS-CoV-2 from the host. TCM is not only effective in the direct inhibition of virus attachment and internalization in a cell but can also prevent their replication and can also help to boost up host immune response. Immune-modulatory effects of TCMs may lead to new medications and can guide us for the scientific validity of drug development. Besides, we also summarized the effective therapies in clinical for controlling inflammation. This review will be not only helpful for the current situation of COVID-19, but can also play a major role in such epidemics in the future.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3410, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635899

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with 5.1% mortality. Although the virological, epidemiological, clinical, and management outcome features of COVID-19 patients have been defined rapidly, the inflammatory and immune profiles require definition as they influence pathogenesis and clinical expression of COVID-19. Here we show lymphopenia, selective loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, excessive T-cell activation and high expression of T-cell inhibitory molecules are more prominent in severe cases than in those with mild disease. CD8+ T cells in patients with severe disease express high levels of cytotoxic molecules. Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages. Thus, aberrant activation and dysregulation of CD8+ T cells occur in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, an effect that might be for pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and indicate that immune-based targets for therapeutic interventions constitute a promising treatment for severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Chemotaxis, Leukocyte , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Leukocyte Count , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 188-202.e5, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612608

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented threat to global public health. Herein, we utilized a combination of targeted and untargeted tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the plasma lipidome and metabolome in mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. A panel of 10 plasma metabolites effectively distinguished COVID-19 patients from healthy controls (AUC = 0.975). Plasma lipidome of COVID-19 resembled that of monosialodihexosyl ganglioside (GM3)-enriched exosomes, with enhanced levels of sphingomyelins (SMs) and GM3s, and reduced diacylglycerols (DAGs). Systems evaluation of metabolic dysregulation in COVID-19 was performed using multiscale embedded differential correlation network analyses. Using exosomes isolated from the same cohort, we demonstrated that exosomes of COVID-19 patients with elevating disease severity were increasingly enriched in GM3s. Our work suggests that GM3-enriched exosomes may partake in pathological processes related to COVID-19 pathogenesis and presents the largest repository on the plasma lipidome and metabolome distinct to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Exosomes/metabolism , G(M3) Ganglioside/blood , Gangliosides/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Diglycerides/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolome/physiology , Metabolomics/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingomyelins/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Young Adult
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