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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 667487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268236

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to global public health. There remains an urgent need to address the clinical significance of laboratory finding changes in predicting disease progression in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to analyze the clinical and immunological features of severe and critically severe patients with COVID-19 in comparison with non-severe patients and identify risk factors for disease severity and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The consecutive records of 211 patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from December 2019 to February 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 211 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 111 patients were classified as non-severe, 59 as severe, and 41 as critically severe cases. The median age was obviously higher in severe and critically severe cases than in non-severe cases. Severe and critically severe patients showed more underlying comorbidities than non-severe patients. Fever was the predominant presenting symptom in COVID-19 patients, and the duration of fever was longer in critically severe patients. Moreover, patients with increased levels of serum aminotransferases and creatinine (CREA) were at a higher risk for severe and critical COVID-19 presentations. The serum levels of IL-6 in severe and critically severe patients were remarkably higher than in non-severe patients. Lymphopenia was more pronounced in severe and critically severe patients compared with non-severe patients. Lymphocyte subset analysis indicated that severe and critically severe patients had significantly decreased count of lymphocyte subpopulations, such as CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells. A multivariate logistic analysis indicated that older age, male sex, the length of hospital stay, body temperature before admission, comorbidities, higher white blood cell (WBC) counts, lower lymphocyte counts, and increased levels of IL-6 were significantly associated with predicting the progression to severe stage of COVID-19. Conclusion: Older age, male sex, underlying illness, sustained fever status, abnormal liver and renal functions, excessive expression of IL-6, lymphopenia, and selective loss of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were related to disease deterioration and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. This study would provide clinicians with valuable information for risk evaluation and effective interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 584870, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963101

ABSTRACT

Background: Statins have multiple protective effects on inflammation, immunity and coagulation, and may help alleviate pneumonia. However, there was no report focusing on the association of statin use with in-hospital outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated the association between the use of statins and in-hospital outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective case series, consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted at 2 hospitals in Wuhan, China, from March 12, 2020 to April 14, 2020 were analyzed. A 1:1 matched cohort was created by propensity score-matched analysis. Demographic data, laboratory findings, comorbidities, treatments and in-hospital outcomes were collected and compared between COVID-19 patients taking and not taking statins. Result: A total of 2,147 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Of which, 250 patients were on statin therapy. The mortality was 2.4% (6/250) for patients taking statins while 3.7% (70/1,897) for those not taking statins. In the multivariate Cox model, after adjusting for age, gender, admitted hospital, comorbidities, in-hospital medications and blood lipids, the risk was lower for mortality (adjusted HR, 0.428; 95% CI, 0.169-0.907; P = 0.029), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (adjusted HR, 0.371; 95% CI, 0.180-0.772; P = 0.008) or intensive care unit (ICU) care (adjusted HR, 0.319; 95% CI, 0.270-0.945; P = 0.032) in the statin group vs. the non-statin group. After propensity score-matched analysis based on 18 potential confounders, a 1:1 matched cohort (206:206) was created. In the matched cohort, the Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the use of statins was associated with better survival (P = 0.025). In a Cox regression model, the use of statins was associated with lower risk of mortality (unadjusted HR, 0.254; 95% CI, 0.070-0.926; P = 0.038), development of ARDS (unadjusted HR, 0.240; 95% CI, 0.087-0.657; P = 0.006), and admission of ICU (unadjusted HR, 0.349; 95% CI, 0.150-0.813; P = 0.015). The results remained consistent when being adjusted for age, gender, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, procalcitonin, and brain natriuretic peptide. The favorable outcomes in statin users remained statistically significant in the first sensitivity analysis with comorbid diabetes being excluded in matching and in the second sensitivity analysis with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being added in matching. Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, the use of statins in COVID-19 patients was associated with better clinical outcomes and is recommended to be continued in patients with COVID-19.

4.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-563

ABSTRACT

Background: Increasing numbers of confirmed cases and deaths due to 2019-coronavirus infected disease (COVID-19) have occurred in Wuhan, China since December 20

7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(7): 811-818, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17624

ABSTRACT

Importance: Increasing numbers of confirmed cases and mortality rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are occurring in several countries and continents. Information regarding the impact of cardiovascular complication on fatal outcome is scarce. Objective: To evaluate the association of underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) and myocardial injury with fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective single-center case series analyzed patients with COVID-19 at the Seventh Hospital of Wuhan City, China, from January 23, 2020, to February 23, 2020. Analysis began February 25, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic data, laboratory findings, comorbidities, and treatments were collected and analyzed in patients with and without elevation of troponin T (TnT) levels. Results: Among 187 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 144 patients (77%) were discharged and 43 patients (23%) died. The mean (SD) age was 58.50 (14.66) years. Overall, 66 (35.3%) had underlying CVD including hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, and 52 (27.8%) exhibited myocardial injury as indicated by elevated TnT levels. The mortality during hospitalization was 7.62% (8 of 105) for patients without underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 13.33% (4 of 30) for those with underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 37.50% (6 of 16) for those without underlying CVD but elevated TnT levels, and 69.44% (25 of 36) for those with underlying CVD and elevated TnTs. Patients with underlying CVD were more likely to exhibit elevation of TnT levels compared with the patients without CVD (36 [54.5%] vs 16 [13.2%]). Plasma TnT levels demonstrated a high and significantly positive linear correlation with plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (ß = 0.530, P < .001) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels (ß = 0.613, P < .001). Plasma TnT and NT-proBNP levels during hospitalization (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 0.307 [0.094-0.600]; 1902.00 [728.35-8100.00]) and impending death (median [IQR], 0.141 [0.058-0.860]; 5375 [1179.50-25695.25]) increased significantly compared with admission values (median [IQR], 0.0355 [0.015-0.102]; 796.90 [401.93-1742.25]) in patients who died (P = .001; P < .001), while no significant dynamic changes of TnT (median [IQR], 0.010 [0.007-0.019]; 0.013 [0.007-0.022]; 0.011 [0.007-0.016]) and NT-proBNP (median [IQR], 352.20 [174.70-636.70]; 433.80 [155.80-1272.60]; 145.40 [63.4-526.50]) was observed in survivors (P = .96; P = .16). During hospitalization, patients with elevated TnT levels had more frequent malignant arrhythmias, and the use of glucocorticoid therapy (37 [71.2%] vs 69 [51.1%]) and mechanical ventilation (31 [59.6%] vs 14 [10.4%]) were higher compared with patients with normal TnT levels. The mortality rates of patients with and without use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers was 36.8% (7 of 19) and 21.4% (36 of 168) (P = .13). Conclusions and Relevance: Myocardial injury is significantly associated with fatal outcome of COVID-19, while the prognosis of patients with underlying CVD but without myocardial injury is relatively favorable. Myocardial injury is associated with cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. Inflammation may be a potential mechanism for myocardial injury. Aggressive treatment may be considered for patients at high risk of myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , China , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Troponin T/blood
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