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BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 211, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779601


BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of knowledge on the long-term outcome in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We describe a cohort of patients with a constellation of symptoms occurring four weeks after diagnosis causing different degrees of reduced functional capacity. Although different hypothesis have been proposed to explain this condition like persistent immune activation or immunological dysfunction, to date, no physiopathological mechanism has been identified. Consequently, there are no therapeutic options besides symptomatic treatment and rehabilitation. METHODS: We evaluated patients with symptoms that persisted for at least 4 weeks after COVID-19. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected. Blood tests, including inflammatory markers, were conducted, and imaging studies made if deemed necessary. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in plasma, stool, and urine were performed. Patients were offered antiviral treatment (compassionate use). RESULTS: We evaluated 29 patients who reported fatigue, muscle pain, dyspnea, inappropriate tachycardia, and low-grade fever. Median number of days from COVID-19 to positive RT-PCR in extra-respiratory samples was 55 (39-67). Previous COVID-19 was mild in 55% of the cases. Thirteen patients (45%) had positive plasma RT-PCR results and 51% were positive in at least one RT-PCR sample (plasma, urine, or stool). Functional status was severely reduced in 48% of the subjects. Eighteen patients (62%) received antiviral treatment. Improvement was seen in most patients (p = 0.000) and patients in the treatment group achieved better outcomes with significant differences (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of COVID-19 patients with persistent symptoms, 45% of them have detectable plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Our results indicate possible systemic viral persistence in these patients, who may benefit of antiviral treatment strategies.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(5): 394-398, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605075


Since SAR-COV-2 infection emerged and spread worldwide, little is known about its impact on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We performed a single-center retrospective study to describe the potential particularities and risk factors for respiratory failure (RF) in that population. This single-center retrospective study included patients infected with HIV, whose current follow-up is run in this center, above18 years of age, with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 5, 2020 and April 15, 2021. We collected data regarding HIV immunological and virological status, main epidemiological characteristics, as well as those conditions considered to potentially influence in SARS-CoV-2 evolution; and clinical, microbiological, radiological, respiratory status, and survival concerning coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared all that, for patients with and without RF and performed a logistic regression for suspected risk factors for RF. One hundred seventy-seven HIV patients were diagnosed from COVID-19 (mean age 53.8 years, 81.3% male). At diagnosis, 95.5% were receiving ART and 91.3% had undetectable viral load, with median CD4 count of 569 cells/µL. One hundred thirty-eight patients (78.4%) had symptoms, 44 (25%) developed RF and 53 (31%) developed bilateral pneumonia. The most commonly used treatments were: steroids (26.7%) and hydroxychloroquine (13.1%). When comparing patients with and without RF, we found statistically significant differences for 20 of the analyzed variables such as age (p < .001) and CD4 (p 0.002), and route of HIV transmission by intravenous drug users IVDU (p 0.002) were determined. In multivariate analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 1.095] and CD4 count less than 350 cells/µL (OR 3.36) emerged as risk factor for RF. People living with HIV whose CD4 count is <350 cells are at higher risk of developing RF when infected by SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 78(4): 405-407, 2021 12 28.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599769


Introduction: Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics began, multiple cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome secondary to COVID-19 have been described. Its typical presentation consists of the triad of paresthesia, ascending muscle weakness and areflexia, although there are several regional variants such as facial diplegia. Case presentation: Two weeks after a contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19, a 35-year-old woman presents with viral myopericarditis. Laboratory studies for autoimmune diseases come back negative, as well as multiple viral serologies. She presents anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, with negative PCR. A week after discharge she presents with palsy of both facial nerves, without other neurological abnormalities. She undergoes examination with cranial CT without findings, and an EMG which shows bilateral alteration of facial nerves. She refuses the performance of a lumbar puncture. Discussion: Facial diplegia can occur because of several illnesses, such as meningeal or brainstem tumors, infectious agents, Guillain-Barre syndrome, autoimmune diseases, trauma, metabolic causes or congenital causes. In our patient, having discarded other etiologies with imaging and analytical studies, the most probable cause is the Guillain-Barre syndrome. It is possibly secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection given the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies after contact with a confirmed case. Conclusion: This case supports the hypothesis that COVID-19 may trigger the Guillain-Barre syndrome, specifically as facial diplegia, which is an atypical variant that should be known to be early diagnosed and treated as part of this syndrome.

Introducción: Desde que se inició la pandemia por el SARS-CoV-2, se han descrito numerosos casos de síndrome de Guillain-Barré secundario a la COVID-19. Su presentación típica es la triada de parestesias, debilidad muscular ascendente y arreflexia, aunque hay diversas variantes regionales como la diplejía facial. Presentación del caso: Mujer de 35 años que, dos semanas después de un contacto estrecho con un caso confirmado de COVID-19, ingresa por miopericarditis probablemente viral, con estudio de autoinmunidad negativo, múltiples serologías virales negativas y positividad para IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 con PCR negativa. Una semana tras el alta presenta paresia de ambos nervios faciales sin otras alteraciones neurológicas. Se realiza TAC craneal sin hallazgos y EMG que evidencia afectación bilateral de los nervios faciales. La paciente rechaza realización de punción lumbar Discusión: La diplejía facial puede ocurrir en el contexto de diversas patologías, como tumores meníngeos o troncoencefálicos, agentes infecciosos, síndrome de Guillain-Barré, patologías autoinmunes, traumatismos, causas metabólicas o causas congénitas. En el caso descrito tras descartar mediante pruebas de imagen y analíticamente el resto de etiologías, y dada la presentación clínica, permanece como causa más probable el síndrome de Guillain-Barré, posiblemente secundario a infección por SARS-CoV-2 dada la positividad de IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 tras un contacto con un caso confirmado. Conclusión: Este caso apoya la hipótesis de que la COVID-19 puede desencadenar el síndrome de Guillain-Barré, específicamente en forma de diplejía facial, una variante atípica que se debe conocer para su identificación y manejo precoz como parte de este síndrome.

COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Adult , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Paresthesia , SARS-CoV-2