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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients receiving venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion thresholds are usually higher than in other patients who are critically ill. Available guidelines suggest a restrictive approach, but do not provide specific recommendations on the topic. The main aim of this study was, in a short timeframe, to describe the actual values of haemoglobin and the rate and the thresholds for transfusion of PRBC during VV ECMO. METHODS: PROTECMO was a multicentre, prospective, cohort study done in 41 ECMO centres in Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Consecutive adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who were receiving VV ECMO were eligible for inclusion. Patients younger than 18 years, those who were not able to provide informed consent when required, and patients with an ECMO stay of less than 24 h were excluded. Our main aim was to monitor the daily haemoglobin concentration and the value at the point of PRBC transfusion, as well as the rate of transfusions. The practice in different centres was stratified by continent location and case volume per year. Adjusted estimates were calculated using marginal structural models with inverse probability weighting, accounting for baseline and time varying confounding. FINDINGS: Between Dec 1, 2018, and Feb 22, 2021, 604 patients were enrolled (431 [71%] men, 173 [29%] women; mean age 50 years [SD 13·6]; and mean haemoglobin concentration at cannulation 10·9 g/dL [2·4]). Over 7944 ECMO days, mean haemoglobin concentration was 9·1 g/dL (1·2), with lower concentrations in North America and high-volume centres. PRBC were transfused on 2432 (31%) of days on ECMO, and 504 (83%) patients received at least one PRBC unit. Overall, mean pretransfusion haemoglobin concentration was 8·1 g/dL (1·1), but varied according to the clinical rationale for transfusion. In a time-dependent Cox model, haemoglobin concentration of less than 7 g/dL was consistently associated with higher risk of death in the intensive care unit compared with other higher haemoglobin concentrations (hazard ratio [HR] 2·99 [95% CI 1·95-4·60]); PRBC transfusion was associated with lower risk of death only when transfused when haemoglobin concentration was less than 7 g/dL (HR 0·15 [0·03-0·74]), although no significant effect in reducing mortality was reported for transfusions for other haemoglobin classes (7·0-7·9 g/dL, 8·0-9·9 g/dL, or higher than 10 g/dL). INTERPRETATION: During VV ECMO, there was no universally accepted threshold for transfusion, but PRBC transfusion was invariably associated with lower mortality only when done with haemoglobin concentration of less than 7 g/dL. FUNDING: Extracorporeal Life Support Organization.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1122367, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300335

ABSTRACT

Background: Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), an endothelium-related peptide, is a predictor of death and multi-organ failure in respiratory infections and sepsis and seems to be effective in identifying COVID-19 severe forms. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of MR-proADM in comparison to routine inflammatory biomarkers, lymphocyte subpopulations, and immunoglobulin (Ig) at an intensive care unit (ICU) admission and over time in predicting mortality in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: All adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted between March 2020 and June 2021 in the ICUs of a university hospital in Italy were enrolled. MR-proADM, lymphocyte subpopulations, Ig, and routine laboratory tests were measured within 48 h and on days 3 and 7. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves with MR-proADM cutoff value of >1.5 nmol/L. Predictive ability was compared using the area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of different receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: A total of 209 patients, with high clinical severity [SOFA 7, IQR 4-9; SAPS II 52, IQR 41-59; median viral pneumonia mortality score (MuLBSTA)-11, IQR 9-13] were enrolled. ICU and overall mortality were 55.5 and 60.8%, respectively. Procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, myoglobin, troponin, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and natural killer lymphocyte count were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors, while lymphocyte subpopulations and Ig were not different in the two groups. MR-proADM was significantly higher in non-survivors (1.17 ± 0.73 vs. 2.31 ± 2.63, p < 0.0001). A value of >1.5 nmol/L was an independent risk factor for mortality at day 28 [odds ratio of 1.9 (95% CI: 1.220-3.060)] after adjusting for age, lactate at admission, SOFA, MuLBSTA, superinfections, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease. On days 3 and 7 of the ICU stay, the MR-proADM trend evaluated within 48 h of admission maintained a correlation with mortality (p < 0.0001). Compared to all other biomarkers considered, the MR-proADM value within 48 h had the best accuracy in predicting mortality at day 28 [AUC = 0.695 (95% CI: 0.624-0.759)]. Conclusion: MR-proADM seems to be the best biomarker for the stratification of mortality risk in critically ill patients with COVID-19. The Ig levels and lymphocyte subpopulations (except for natural killers) seem not to be correlated with mortality. Larger, multicentric studies are needed to confirm these findings.

3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been widely used in patients with COVID-19, but uncertainty remains about the determinants of in-hospital mortality and data on post-discharge outcomes are scarce. The aims of this study were to investigate the variables associated with in-hospital outcomes in patients who received ECMO during the first wave of COVID-19 and to describe the status of patients 6 months after ECMO initiation. METHODS: EuroECMO-COVID is a prospective, multicentre, observational study developed by the European Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. This study was based on data from patients aged 16 years or older who received ECMO support for refractory COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic-from March 1 to Sept 13, 2020-at 133 centres in 21 countries. In-hospital mortality and mortality 6 months after ECMO initiation were the primary outcomes. Mixed-Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations between patient and management-related variables (eg, patient demographics, comorbidities, pre-ECMO status, and ECMO characteristics and complications) and in-hospital deaths. Survival status at 6 months was established through patient contact or institutional charts review. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04366921, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between March 1 and Sept 13, 2020, 1215 patients (942 [78%] men and 267 [22%] women; median age 53 years [IQR 46-60]) were included in the study. Median ECMO duration was 15 days (IQR 8-27). 602 (50%) of 1215 patients died in hospital, and 852 (74%) patients had at least one complication. Multiorgan failure was the leading cause of death (192 [36%] of 528 patients who died with available data). In mixed-Cox analyses, age of 60 years or older, use of inotropes and vasopressors before ECMO initiation, chronic renal failure, and time from intubation to ECMO initiation of 4 days or more were associated with higher in-hospital mortality. 613 patients did not die in hospital, and 547 (95%) of 577 patients for whom data were available were alive at 6 months. 102 (24%) of 431 patients had returned to full-time work at 6 months, and 57 (13%) of 428 patients had returned to part-time work. At 6 months, respiratory rehabilitation was required in 88 (17%) of 522 patients with available data, and the most common residual symptoms included dyspnoea (185 [35%] of 523 patients) and cardiac (52 [10%] of 514 patients) or neurocognitive (66 [13%] of 512 patients) symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Patient's age, timing of cannulation (<4 days vs ≥4 days from intubation), and use of inotropes and vasopressors are essential factors to consider when analysing the outcomes of patients receiving ECMO for COVID-19. Despite post-discharge survival being favourable, persisting long-term symptoms suggest that dedicated post-ECMO follow-up programmes are required. FUNDING: None.

4.
ASAIO J ; 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227279

ABSTRACT

The aim of this retrospective multicenter observational study is to test the feasibility and safety of a combined extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) plus renal replacement therapy (RRT) system to use an ultraprotective ventilator setting while maintaining (1) an effective support of renal function and (2) values of pH within the physiologic limits in a cohort of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Among COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of 9 participating hospitals, 27 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation undergoing ECCO2R-plus-RRT treatment were included in the analysis. The treatment allowed to reduce VT from 6.0 ± 0.6 mL/kg at baseline to 4.8 ± 0.8, 4.6 ± 1.0, and 4.3 ± 0.3 mL/kg, driving pressure (ΔP) from 19.8 ± 2.5 cm H2O to 14.8 ± 3.6, 14.38 ± 4.1 and 10.2 ± 1.6 cm H2O after 24 hours, 48 hours, and at discontinuation of ECCO2R-plus-RRT (T3), respectively (p < 0.001). PaCO2 and pH remained stable. Plasma creatinine decreased over the study period from 3.30 ± 1.27 to 1.90 ± 1.30 and 1.27 ± 0.90 mg/dL after 24 and 48 hours of treatment, respectively (p < 0.01). No patient-related events associated with the extracorporeal system were reported. These data show that in patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS and AKI, ECCO2R-plus-RRT is effective in allowing ultraprotective ventilator settings while maintaining an effective support of renal function and values of pH within physiologic limits.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 850535, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809422

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 remains challenging. A large number of hospitalized patients are at a high risk of developing AKI. For this reason, we conducted a nationwide survey to assess the incidence and management of AKI in critically ill patients affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This is a multicenter, observational, nationwide online survey, involving the Italian Society of Nephrology and the critical care units in Italy, developed in partnership between the scientific societies such as SIN and SIAARTI. Invitations to participate were distributed through emails and social networks. Data were collected for a period of 1 week during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 141 responses were collected in the SIN-SIAARTI survey: 54.6% from intensivists and 44.6% from nephrologists. About 19,000 cases of COVID-19 infection have been recorded in hospitalized patients; among these cases, 7.3% had a confirmed acute kidney injury (AKI), of which 82.2% were managed in ICUs. Only 43% of clinicians routinely used the international KDIGO criteria. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was performed in 628 patients with continuous techniques used most frequently, and oliguria was the most common indication (74.05%). Early initiation was preferred, and RRT was contraindicated in the case of therapeutic withdrawal or in the presence of severe comorbidities or hemodynamic instability. Regional anticoagulation with citrate was the most common choice. About 41.04% of the interviewed physicians never used extracorporeal blood purification therapies (EBPTs) for inflammatory cytokine or endotoxin removal. Moreover, 4.33% of interviewed clinicians used these techniques only in the presence of AKI, whereas 24.63% adopted them even in the absence of AKI. Nephrologists made more use of EBPT, especially in the presence of AKI. HVHF was never used in 58.54% of respondents, but HCO membranes and adsorbents were used in more than 50% of cases. Conclusion: This joint SIN-SIAARTI survey at the Italian Society of Nephrology and the critical care units in Italy showed that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an underestimation of AKI based on the "non-use" of common diagnostic criteria, especially by intensivists. Similarly, the use of specific types of RRT and, in particular, blood purification therapies for immune modulation and organ support strongly differed between centers, suggesting the need for the development of standardized clinical guidelines.

6.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 34, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become an established rescue therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in several etiologies including influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. The benefit of receiving ECMO in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still uncertain. The aim of this analysis was to compare the outcome of patients who received veno-venous ECMO for COVID-19 and Influenza A H1N1 associated ARDS. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study including adults with ARDS, receiving ECMO for COVID-19 and influenza A H1N1 pneumonia between 2009 and 2021 in seven Italian ICU. The primary outcome was any-cause mortality at 60 days after ECMO initiation. We used a multivariable Cox model to estimate the difference in mortality accounting for patients' characteristics and treatment factors before ECMO was started. Secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, ICU and hospital length of stay and ECMO associated complications. RESULTS: Data from 308 patients with COVID-19 (N = 146) and H1N1 (N = 162) associated ARDS who had received ECMO support were included. The estimated cumulative mortality at 60 days after initiating ECMO was higher in COVID-19 (46%) than H1N1 (27%) patients (hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.17-2.46). When adjusting for confounders, specifically age and hospital length of stay before ECMO support, the hazard ratio decreased to 1.39, 95% CI 0.78-2.47. ICU and hospital length of stay, duration of ECMO and invasive mechanical ventilation and ECMO-associated hemorrhagic complications were higher in COVID-19 than H1N1 patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with ARDS who received ECMO, the observed unadjusted 60-day mortality was higher in cases of COVID-19 than H1N1 pneumonia. This difference in mortality was not significant after multivariable adjustment; older age and longer hospital length of stay before ECMO emerged as important covariates that could explain the observed difference. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05080933 , retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348670

ABSTRACT

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a life-saving rescue therapy in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). ECMO has been associated with development of lymphocytopenia that is also common in COVID-19. Hyperinflammation may complicate SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, prompting therapy with steroids and immunomodulatory drugs. We aimed to evaluate the association of therapies such as steroids and Tocilizumab with trajectories of the total leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers in COVID-19-related ARDS, requiring or not VV-ECMO support. The association of the trajectories of the leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers with treatment with steroids (Steroids), Tocilizumab (Tocilizumab), both drugs (Steroids + Tocilizumab), and absence of treatment (No Treatment) were analyzed using mixed effects regression models, where ECMO was considered as a potential effect modifier. One hundred and thirty-nine leukocyte and eighty-one lymphocyte subpopulation counts were obtained from thirty-one patients who required (VV-ECMO, N = 13) or not (no VV-ECMO, N = 18) extracorporeal support. In both groups, treatment with Steroids + Tocilizumab was independently associated with a significant reduction of 46% and 67% in total lymphocytes, 22% and 60% in CD3+, and 61% and 91% in CD19+ (B lymphocytes) compared to those obtained without treatment, respectively. In the no VV-ECMO group, Tocilizumab was associated with a 79% increase in total lymphocytes and with a reduction in procalcitonin compared to no treatment. CD45+, CD3+CD4+ (Th cell), CD3+CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, the NK cell subpopulation, neutrophils, monocytes, and basophils were significantly reduced by Steroids + Tocilizumab without an effect modification by VV-ECMO support. In critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS, concomitant therapies with steroids and Tocilizumab, beside mitigating the inflammation and fibrinolysis, could reduce the total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and subpopulation count. Moreover, the effect of Tocilizumab in increasing the total lymphocytes and reducing procalcitonin might be blunted by VV-ECMO.

8.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217100

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 emergency, the referral Intensive Care Unit for the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) support of Piedmont Region (Italy), in cooperation with infectious disease specialists, perfusionists and cardiac surgeons, developed a protocol to guarantee operator safety during invasive procedures, among which the ECMO positioning or inter-hospital transport. The use of powered air-purifying respirators, filtering facepiece particles (FFP) 2-3 masks, protective suits, disposable sterile surgical gowns, and two pairs of sterile gloves as a part of a protocol seemed effective and feasible for trained healthcare workers and allow all the complex activities connected with the positioning of the ECMO support to be completed effectively. The simulation training on donning and doffing procedures and the presence of a dedicated team member to verify the compliance with the safety procedure effectively reassured operators and likely reduced the risk of self-contamination. From 1 March to 31 December 2020, we used the procedure in 35 severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and one acute respiratory failure caused by neoplastic total tracheal obstruction, all positive to COVID-19, to be connected to veno-venous ECMO in peripheral hospitals and centralized for ECMO management. This preliminary experience seems to confirm that the use of ECMO during COVID-19 outbreaks is feasible and the risks associated with its positioning and management are sustainable for the health-care workers and safe for patients.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246771, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in comparison to C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in predicting mortality in COVID-19-ICU-patients. METHODS: All consecutive COVID-19 adult patients admitted between March and June 2020 to the ICU of a referral, university hospital in Northern-Italy were enrolled. MR-proADM and routine laboratory test were measured within 48 hours from ICU admission, on day 3, 7 and 14. Survival curves difference with MR-proADM cut-off set to 1.8 nmol/L were tested using log-rank test. Predictive ability was compared using area under the curve and 95% confidence interval of different receiver-operating characteristics curves. RESULTS: 57 patients were enrolled. ICU and overall mortality were 54.4%. At admission, lymphocytopenia was present in 86% of patients; increased D-dimer and CRP levels were found in 84.2% and 87.7% of patients respectively, while PCT values > 0.5 µg/L were observed in 47.4% of patients. MR-proADM, CRP and LDH were significantly different between surviving and non-surviving patients and over time, while PCT, D-dimer and NT-pro-BNP did not show any difference between the groups and over time; lymphocytes were different between surviving and non-surviving patients only. MR-proADM was higher in dying patients (2.65±2.33vs1.18±0.47, p<0.001) and a higher mortality characterized patients with MR-proADM >1.8 nmol/L (p = 0.016). The logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and PCT values confirmed an odds ratio = 10.3 [95%CI:1.9-53.6] (p = 0.006) for MR-proADM >1.8 nmol/L and = 22.2 [95%CI:1.6-316.9] (p = 0.022) for cardiovascular disease. Overall, MR-proADM had the best predictive ability (AUC = 0.85 [95%CI:0.78-0.90]). CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 ICU-patients, MR-proADM seems to have constantly higher values in non-survivor patients and predict mortality more precisely than other biomarkers. Repeated MR-proADM measurement may support a rapid and effective decision-making. Further studies are needed to better explain the mechanisms responsible of the increase in MR-proADM in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Calcitonin/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Patient Admission , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
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