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1.
Sustainability ; 14(6):3213, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765863

ABSTRACT

Based on glove puppetry, a traditional cultural pursuit of Taiwan, this study designed a virtual reality (VR) intergenerational game to bring together the elderly and young participants. In the game, a system of cooperation and sharing was constructed which would lead to an exchange between experience and knowledge of traditional culture and digital technology and result in intergenerational interaction and communication learning. Through interviews with eight subjects after the empirical study, this study explored the operation and experience of this game, the perception of interaction and dialogue, and the cultural heritage and learning. According to the research findings, VR game cultural elements and technology learning positively influence intergenerational relations and communication. Key factors of VR intergenerational games include the following: (1) the game content must be attractive for the elderly;(2) the operating procedure of the game and affordance of the interface for the elderly must be simplified;and (3) the game must establish a sense of achievement for players.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311951

ABSTRACT

After the epidemic of COVID-19, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 has been developed for the preventative and therapeutic purposes. However, few methodologies are reported in detail on how to rapidly and efficiently generate NAbs of interest. Here, we present a strategically optimized screening method for NAbs, which has enabled us to obtain SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) specific monoclonal Abs within 4 days, followed by additional 2 days to evaluate their neutralizing activities. Using this method, we obtained 198 specific Abs against SARS-CoV-2 RBD from the blood samples of COVID-19 convalescent patients, and 96 of them showed neutralizing activity. At least 20% of these NAbs exhibited high neutralizing potency. The top 2 NAbs showed the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to block authentic SARS-CoV-2 at 9.88 and 11.13 ng/ml, respectively. Altogether, our study provides a fundamental methodology for discovering NAbs with potential preventative and therapeutic value for emerging infectious diseases.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325272

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout China and all over the world. Little is known about the dynamic changes in the patient immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, and how different responses are correlated with disease severity and outcomes. Method: 74 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this prospective research. The demographic information, medical history, symptoms, signs and laboratory results were analyzed and compared between severe and non-severe patients. The leukocytes, lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory cytokines were longitudinally collected. Results: : Of the 74 patients included, 17 suffered from severe disease. The severe patients tended be older (65.29 ± 12.33 years vs. 45.37 ± 18.66 years), and had a greater degree of underlying disease (41.18% vs. 24.56%) , lower baseline lymphocytes counts (0.69 ± 0.36 × 10⁹ vs. 1.46 ± 0.75 × 10⁹) , higher neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratios (NLRs;3.76 (3.15–5.51) vs. 2.07 (1.48–2.93)) and lower baseline eosinophil counts (0.01 ± 0.01 × 10⁹ vs. 0.05 ± 0.07 × 10⁹), than that in non-severe patients. The baseline helper T (Th) cells (335.47 vs. 666.46/mL), suppressor T(Ts) cells (158 vs. 334/mL), B cells (95 vs. 210/mL), and natural killer (NK) cells (52 vs. 122/mL) were significantly decreased in severe cases compared to that in non-severe cases. In addition, the baseline neutrophils and B cells were positively correlated with the severity of COVID-19 and the baseline lymphocytes and Th cells were negatively correlated with the severity of COVID-19. The dynamic change of T cells, Th cells and IFN-γ in the severe cases were parallel to the amelioration of the disease. Conclusions: : Collectively, our study provides novel information on the kinetics of the immune responses in a cohort of COVID-19 patients with different disease severities. Furthermore, our study indicates that both innate and adaptive immune responses correlate with better clinical outcomes.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324331

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on willingness to adopt healthy dietary habits in China. Methods: : A survey was carried out, and subjective perception of impact due to COVID-19 and willingness to change dietary habits were obtained. Results: : A total of 22,459 subjects were derived from China, with an average age of 27.9±7.8 years old. Of them, the mean score of willingness to adopt healthy dietary habits was 2.2 (ranges from -9 to 9). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (epidemic concern, impact of psychology, impact of work or study) are associated with a higher score of willingness to adopt healthy dietary habits among female, the older, on-medical worker, and individuals married or with higher education level, normal BMI. Conclusions: : There was a positive improvement to a proper diet, so the changing features of diets should be considered in nutritional interventions for maintaining health, and prevention and control COVID-19 during the pandemic period.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315172

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: : This study aimed to develop a model for estimating the mediating effects of risk perception and confidence on the association between perceived social support and active coping with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among people in Taiwan. Methods: : The data of 1,970 participants recruited from a Facebook advertisement was analyzed. Perceived social support, active coping with COVID-19, risk perception and confidence were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires. Results: : The structural equation modeling was applied to verify the direct and indirect effects between variables. The mediation model demonstrated that lower perceived social support was significantly associated with a higher level of active coping with COVID-19, and this was mediated by a higher level of risk perception. Conclusions: : The present study identified the importance of risk perception on the public’s coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 4376418, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556505

ABSTRACT

The development of artificial intelligence and worldwide epidemic events has promoted the implementation of smart healthcare while bringing issues of data privacy, malicious attack, and service quality. The Medical Internet of Things (MIoT), along with the technologies of federated learning and blockchain, has become a feasible solution for these issues. In this paper, we present a blockchain-based federated learning method for smart healthcare in which the edge nodes maintain the blockchain to resist a single point of failure and MIoT devices implement the federated learning to make full of the distributed clinical data. In particular, we design an adaptive differential privacy algorithm to protect data privacy and gradient verification-based consensus protocol to detect poisoning attacks. We compare our method with two similar methods on a real-world diabetes dataset. Promising experimental results show that our method can achieve high model accuracy in acceptable running time while also showing good performance in reducing the privacy budget consumption and resisting poisoning attacks.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Artificial Intelligence , Computer Security , Delivery of Health Care , Privacy
7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21267074

ABSTRACT

Purposeto describe the clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary care and to analyze the predictive role of different risk factors on prognosis, especially living conditions. MethodsRetrospective longitudinal observational retrospective study by reviewing medical records from a primary care center since March 1 to April 30, 2020. Case definition of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics, comorbidity and living conditions were collected. The statistical analysis consisted in description of the sample, comparison of prognosis groups and analysis of prognostic factors. ResultsA sample of 70 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was obtained, with comorbidity mainly related to arterial hypertension, overweight/obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and chronic pulmonary pathology. Pneumonia was present in 66%. Exitus occurred in 14% of the sample. Factors associated with mortality were advanced age (84 vs 55; p<0.0001), arterial hypertension (78% vs 41%; p=0.040), asthma-COPD (56% vs 13%; p=0.008) and atrial fibrillation (56% vs 5%; p=0.001). ConclusionsThe study reflects the clinical practice of a primary care center. This kind of studies are essential to strengthen and reorganize the Health System and to try to anticipate the medium- to long-term consequences of COVID-19 on global health.

8.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; : 1-14, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1518173

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research was to understand the current physical and mental health of the elderly using sports apps under the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 711 questionnaires were collected using purposive sampling and the snowball method and were analyzed by Statistical Product and Service Solutions 22.0 and Analysis of Moment Structures 20.0 software. The survey found that elderly people who exercise at intervals of one month are more physically and mentally stressed, but that different exercise frequencies also have different levels of physical and mental health problems;the lower the exercise intensity, the more obvious the negative emotions, the stronger or the less time they spend in exercise, and the greater the pressure of sports. In a high-risk social environment, even if the elderly use sports apps to exercise, they will still change the intensity and time of the exercise, but they will not change the frequency of exercise that has become a daily habit. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mathematical Problems in Engineering is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

9.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 42(2):237-239, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1502912

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate eating behavior and associated family factors of preschool children during the prevalence of Corona Virus Disease(COVID-19), and to provide scientific basis for healthy eating behavior for preschool children.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e23656, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138003

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Inflammation has been believed to contribute to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Risk factors for death of COVID-19 pneumonia have not yet been well established.In this retrospective cohort study, we included the deceased patients in COVID-19 specialized ICU with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Guanggu hospital area of Tongji Hospital from February 8th to March 30th. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records using a standard data collection form. We used Spearman rank correlation and Cox regression analysis to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death, especially the association between inflammatory cytokines and death.A total of 205 severe/critical COVID-19 pneumonia patients were admitted in the COVID-19 specialized ICU and 75 deceased patients were included in the final analysis. The median age of the deceasing patients was 70 years (IQR 65-79). The common symptoms were fever (78.9%), cough (70.4%), and expectoration (39.4%). The BNP and CRP levels were far beyond the normal reference range. In the Spearman rank correlation analysis, IL-8 was found to be significantly associated with the time from onset to death (rs= -0.30, P = .034) and that from admission to death (rs= -0.32, P = .019). Cox regression showed after adjusting age and sex, IL-8 levels were still significantly associated with the time from onset to death (P = .003) and that from admission to death (P  = .01).IL-8 levels were associated with in-hospital death in severe/critical COVID-19 patients, which could help clinicians to identify patients with high risk of death at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-8/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , China , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21252822

ABSTRACT

To unravel the source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction and the pattern of its spreading and evolution in the United Arab Emirates, we conducted meta-transcriptome sequencing of 1,067 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected between May 9th and Jun 29th, 2020 during the first peak of the local COVID-19 epidemic. We identified global clade distribution and eleven novel genetic variants that were almost absent in the rest of the world defined five subclades specific to the UAE viral population. Cross-settlement human-to-human transmission was related to the local business activity. Perhaps surprisingly, at least 5% of the population were co-infected by SARS-CoV-2 of multiple clades within the same host. We also discovered an enrichment of cytosine-to-uracil mutation among the viral population collected from the nasopharynx, that is different from the adenosine-to-inosine change previously reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and a previously unidentified upregulation of APOBEC4 expression in nasopharynx among infected patients, indicating the innate immune host response mediated by ADAR and APOBEC gene families could be tissue-specific. The genomic epidemiological and molecular biological knowledge reported here provides new insights for the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and transmission and points out future direction on host-pathogen interaction investigation.

12.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20230938

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global epidemic crisis with tens of thousands confirmed cases surfacing everyday. The infection rates in households, offices and public places are quite different from those in encompassed spaces such as airplanes, trains and cruise ships. Studying the behavior of COVID-19 in confined spaces like Diamond Princess cruise is of great importance to understand the disease progression and to manage the epidemic. We propose a novel mixture model to estimate the infection distribution and total infected number after 14 days of quarantine based on PCR test data performed on the Diamond Princess cruise. ResultsIn contrast to the officially reported 634 individuals with PCR-positive results after the 14 day quarantine, which as of April 27, 2020 had increased to 712, we conclude that this number should be at least 1000. The discrepancy might be caused by the false-negative result of the PCR test or the occurrence of infection after the test.

13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 169: 108448, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-849213

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is a novel pneumonia can rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. It has appeared in 196 countries around the world. We aimed to clarify the associations between fasting plasma glucose levels and mortality of COVID-19 in patients without diabetes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center study of 151 patients without diabetes in Tongji Hospital from January 1, 2020 to February 28, 2020. Past medical histories, clinical features and laboratory parameters were collected in these patients. RESULTS: Compared with survivors, non-survivors were more likely to have underlying medical conditions including hypertension and chronic pulmonary diseases. Non-survivors had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while lower lymphocyte counts as compared with those of survivors (all P<0.05). Besides, patients with higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) had higher IL-6, IL-8, CRP levels and mortality; while lower lymphocyte counts. After adjusting for age and gender, each tertile increment of FPG levels conferred 3.54-fold higher risks of death (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidential interval, 1.25-10.06, P=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Non-survivors combined with more comorbidities, more severe infection, and worse liver, kidney and cardiac function in patients without diabetes. Additionally, fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly associated with the risk of death in patients even with normal FPG and HbA1c levels.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
15.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-531

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious diseases are generally preventable, however, constitute a serious menace for global public health. The ongoing outbreak of 2019 novel cor

16.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20203455

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of precision medicine industry, DNA sequencing becomes increasingly important as a research and diagnosis tool. For clinical applications, medical professionals require a platform which is fast, easy to use, and presents clear information relevant to definitive diagnosis. We have developed a single molecule desktop sequencing platform, GenoCare 1600. Fast library preparation (without amplification) and simple instrument operation make it friendlier for clinical use. Here we presented sequencing data of E. coli sample from GenoCare 1600 with consensus accuracy reaches 99.99%. We also demonstrated sequencing of microbial mixtures and COVID-19 samples from throat swabs. Our data show accurate quantitation of microbial, sensitive identification of SARS-CoV-2 virus and detection of variants confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

17.
Epidemiology Bulletin ; 36(16):95-95, 2020.
Article in English | Airiti Library | ID: covidwho-727501

ABSTRACT

The serious unique infectious pneumonia (COVID-19), caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-coV-2) in Wuhan, China in late 2019, has rapidly spread and become a global pandemic. It resulted in crises menacing people's health, lives, international engagement and economic systems. Thus, a vaccine holds most potential for a rapid means of resolving the pandemic before the end of 2021. There are 23 different candidate vaccines worldwide that have entered into clinical trials. Among them, the two that have progressed the fastest are Sinovac Biotech's inactivated vaccine and the recombinant vaccine (ChAdOx1-S) developed by Oxford University, which are already in the third phase of clinical trials. In late April 2020, WHO, EU and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation launched the ACT Accelerator Plan to acquire more COVID-19 tools. Also, GAVI, CEPI and WHO are jointly promoting the COVAX Facility, responsible for coordinating and integrating resources among worldwide vaccine developers and manufacturers. In addition to assuming risks of vaccine development, they also provide early investment in candidate vaccine products. These efforts increase chances of successful vaccine development as they expedite safe, efficient development and mass manufacturing of COVID-19 vaccines. This will result in the common goal of equitable distribution of vaccines for every nation.

18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20171371

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has declared SARS-CoV-2 virus outbreak a world-wide pandemic. Individuals infected by the virus exhibited different degrees of symptoms, the basis of which remains largely unclear. Currently, though convalescent individuals have been shown with both cellular and humoral immune responses, there is very limited understanding on the immune responses, especially adaptive immune responses, in patients with severe COVID-19. Here, we examined 10 blood samples from COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The majority of them (70%) mounted SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immunity with production of neutralizing antibodies. However, compared to healthy controls, the percentages and absolute numbers of both NK cells and CD8+ T cells were significantly reduced, accompanied with decreased IFN{gamma} expression in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood from severe patients. Most notably, we failed in detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific IFN{gamma} production by peripheral blood lymphocytes from these patients. Our work thus indicates that COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms are associated with defective cellular immunity, which not only provides insights on understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19, but also has implications in developing an effective vaccine to SARS-CoV-2.

19.
Endocrine ; 69(3): 477-480, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670320

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This essay aims to propose suggestions on what we can learn from previous investigations to conduct further studies on the potential mechanisms underlying the effect of diabetes mellitus on COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed some literature on diabetes and other types of coronavirus infection such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and made some summaries and comparisons. RESULTS: Diabetes affect the occurrence and progression of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In-depth and comprehensive exploration of the mechanism of diabetes affecting COVID-19 should be carried out.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20155150

ABSTRACT

System-wide molecular characteristics of COVID-19, especially in those patients without comorbidities, have not been fully investigated. We compared extensive molecular profiles of blood samples from 231 COVID-19 patients, ranging from asymptomatic to critically ill, importantly excluding those with any comorbidities. Amongst the major findings, asymptomatic patients were characterized by highly activated anti-virus interferon, T/natural killer (NK) cell activation, and transcriptional upregulation of inflammatory cytokine mRNAs. However, given very abundant RNA binding proteins (RBPs), these cytokine mRNAs could be effectively destabilized hence preserving normal cytokine levels. In contrast, in critically ill patients, cytokine storm due to RBPs inhibition and tryptophan metabolites accumulation contributed to T/NK cell dysfunction. A machine-learning model was constructed which accurately stratified the COVID-19 severities based on their multi-omics features. Overall, our analysis provides insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis and identifies targets for intervening in treatment.

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