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1.
8th International Conference on E-Business and Mobile Commerce, ICEMC 2022 ; : 125-131, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053355

ABSTRACT

As an important pillar of the real economy, small-micro enterprises are facing many difficulties in operation under the dual impact of the global economic downturn and the COVID-19 epidemic. And they are in urgent need of external financing to tide over the difficulties. The purpose of rural commercial bank is to serve small and medium-sized enterprises and agriculture, rural areas and farmers. Therefore, the financing of rural commercial bank is crucial for the development of small-micro enterprises. However, due to unstable development mode, imperfect management mechanism and other reasons, small-micro enterprises usually have high credit risk, which brings great challenges to the loan risk control of rural commercial bank. Effective evaluation of credit risk of small-micro enterprises is the basis of rural commercial bank's loan decision-making and an important issue concerned by theory and practice. This paper studies the credit risk evaluation model of rural commercial bank for small-micro enterprises. Firstly, a set of credit risk evaluation indicator system combining financial and behavioral indicators is constructed, which expands the disadvantages of traditional research that only considers financial indicators is too one-sided. Secondly, XGBoost model is used to screen indicators and build a credit risk evaluation model of small-micro enterprises based on improved random forest. Finally, the effectiveness of the model is verified by comparing with other traditional models, and the experiment proves that the introduction of behavioral indicators can significantly improve the effectiveness of the model. © 2022 ACM.

2.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-332151

ABSTRACT

Importance: The role of COVID-19 vaccination on the mental health of the general population remains poorly understood. Objective: To assess the short-term change of depressive and anxiety symptoms in relation to COVID-19 vaccination among Swedish adults. Design: A prospective cohort study with monthly data collections on self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms from December 2020 to October 2021 and COVID-19 vaccination from July to October 2021. Setting: The Omtanke2020 Study, Sweden. Participants: 7,925 participants of the Omtanke2020 study with complete data on depressive and anxiety symptoms and vaccination status. Intervention(s) or Exposure(s): Receiving the first or second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. Main outcomes(s) and Measure(s): Binary measures of depression (PHQ-9, cut-off 310) and anxiety (GAD-7, cut-off 310) one month before the first dose, one month after the first dose, and, if applicable, one month after the second dose. For individuals not vaccinated or chose to not report vaccination status (unvaccinated individuals), we selected three monthly measures of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 with 2-month intervals in-between based on data availability. Results: 5,079 (64.1%) individuals received two doses of COVID-19 vaccine, 1,977 (24.9%) received one dose, 305 (3.9%) were not vaccinated, and 564 (7.1%) chose not to report vaccination status. There was a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety among vaccinated, compared with unvaccinated, individuals, especially after the second dose. Among individuals receiving two doses of vaccine, the prevalence of depression and anxiety was lower after both first (aRR=0.82, 95%CI 0.76-0.88 for depression;aRR=0.81, 95%CI 0.73-0.89 for anxiety) and second (aRR=0.79, 95%CI 0.73-0.85 for depression;aRR=0.73, 95%CI 0.66-0.81 for anxiety) dose, compared with before vaccination. Similar results were observed among individuals receiving only one dose (aRR=0.76, 95%CI 0.68-0.84 for depression;aRR=0.82, 95%CI 0.72-0.94 for anxiety, comparing after first dose to before vaccination). These results were independent of age, sex, recruitment type, body mass index, smoking, relationship status, history of psychiatric disorder, number of comorbidities, COVID-19 infection status, and seasonality. Conclusions and Relevance: We observed a positive short-term change in depressive and anxiety symptoms among adults receiving a COVID-19 vaccine in the current pandemic.

3.
Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics ; 70(1):25-30, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1754293

ABSTRACT

Background & aims. During the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., Area Agencies on Aging (AAA) became an essential source for older adults to maintain a healthy life after social isolation. It has developed different programs in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, such as home delivered meals to support older adults’ nutrition supply. The purpose of this study was to examine how well AAA has managed such important nutrition plans facing the COVID-19 changes. Methods. We integrated three databases, including 49 weeks (6 April 2020-14 March 2021) 33 Planning and Service Area (PSA) meal data, PSAs’ key characteristics from the California Department of Aging, and the COVID-19 cases from the California Department of Public Health. We examined the association between the number of meals and people served and the COVID-19 cases and PSA features, using the univariate analysis and the random effect model. Results. We observed a positive relationship between the number of meals served and the number of the COVID-19 cases, however, not the number of people served. We found a negative relationship between the number of rural older adults with both the number of meals served and people served. Additionally, non-English-speaking and minority played a positive and negative role respectively as to the number of meals served. Conclusions. These results indicated that the AAA should cover a wider population, especially in rural areas experiencing a shortage of volunteers in the pandemic, urging the collaboration with high-tech and third-party companies to improve delivery efficiency. © 2022, Pacini Editore S.p.A./AU-CNS. All rights reserved.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325279

ABSTRACT

Recent study reported that an aerosolised virus (COVID-19) can survive in the air for a few hours. It is highly possible that people get infected with the disease by breathing and contact with items contaminated by the aerosolised virus. However, the aerosolised virus transmission and trajectories in various meteorological environments remain unclear. This paper has investigated the movement of aerosolised viruses from a high concentration source across a dense urban area. The case study looks at the highly air polluted areas of London: University College Hospital (UCH) and King Cross and St Pancras International Station (KCSPI). We explored the spread and decay of COVID-19 released from the hospital and railway stations with the prescribed meteorological conditions. The study has three key findings: the primary result is that it is possible for the virus to travel from meters up to hundred meters from the source location. The secondary finding shows viruses released into the atmosphere from entry and exit points at KCSPI remain trapped within a small radial distance of < 50m. This strengthens the case for the use of face coverings to reduce the infection rate. The final finding shows that there are different levels of risk at various door locations for UCH, depending on which door is used there can be a higher concentration of COVID-19. Although our results are based on London, since the fundamental knowledge processes are the same, our study can be further extended to other locations (especially the highly air polluted areas) in the world.

5.
Biomedical Engineering - Applications, Basis and Communications ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1593202

ABSTRACT

The increase in aged population is a global trend. Inculcating healthy behaviors such as regular exercises in the elderly has a significant impact on the financial and medical burden globally. Moreover, air pollution and the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pose a serious threat to public health. In order to improve the health conditions of the population, this study developed a motion feedback system named MoveV that can be used for several indoor training exercises. This system provides instant motion feedback by synchronizing exercise training videos on the website using a motion analysis algorithm that is applicable on smartphones, and a cloud database platform is used to record health behaviors. Feature extraction is performed based on force intensity, motion velocity, and exercise direction. The resultant accuracy of the motion feedback system was tested by a motion science expert and presented as the confidence level. For perfect movement, a confidence level of up to 90.5% was achieved, indicating that the MoveV system was able to record users' exercise frequency and distinguish whether the user was performing well in the exercise movements. The proposed system is convenient and does not incur additional expenditure by purchasing any new device. Furthermore, it provides visual and voice feedback, companionship, and exercise motivation to the users, all of which are important factors when using online exercise platforms.

6.
Scientia Sinica Informationis ; 51(11):1885-1899, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1538236

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic is raging worldwide, epidemic surveillance helps prevent the spread of the epidemic. Protecting the privacy of patients and data providers in the monitoring system can relieve them of their concerns about the leakage of private information, thereby improving the epidemic data collection capabilities of the system. In this article, we propose a lightweight-blockchain based privacy-preserving data aggregation scheme (LBPDA) for epidemic disease surveillance, which can aggregate data without relying on a trusted third party. Especially, to protect data privacy in the data aggregation process, the case count data is aggregated based on the Paillier cryptosystem's homomorphism. Besides, to reduce the time and storage overhead, we improved the adopted Hyperledger Fabric, thus lightening the data aggregation process. Finally, we simulated the proposed scheme and analyzed its security and performance to verify its feasibility and effectiveness. The results showed that the proposed scheme could meet the government department's requirements to aggregate patient case count data for epidemic disease surveillance while protecting the privacy of patients and data providers. Moreover, we also proved that the lightweight of blockchain is effective by comparison. © 2021, Science China Press. All right reserved.

7.
Chinese General Practice ; 24(25):3184-3189, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1395303

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the ability to manage public health emergencies in mega-cities has been put on the policy agenda, and the role of primary care in public health system is critical. Objective: To explore the status, problems and challenges of practical exploration of Shanghai's primary care in responding to COVID-19, providing policy recommendations and decision-making basis for improving the public health emergency system. Methods: From June to September 2020, a qualitative study was conducted using group interviews with administrators and healthcare professionals selected from 10 representative community health centers(CHCs) in suburban, fringe and urban areas in Shanghai's 5 districts for exploring major tasks shouldered by the CHCs, organizational structure of the CHCs, actual tasks performed by the CHCs, internal collaboration, major problems in service delivery during the pandemic, and recommendations, and with directors, as well as professionals responsible for information, healthcare management and quality control, public emergency management and infectious disease containment selected from health commissions and centers for disease control and prevention in the districts, for exploring the functions and roles of CHCs during the pandemic and their weaknesses in anti-pandemic actions, anti-pandemic supports from health commissions and centers for disease control and prevention for CHCs, and ideas about actions of primary care in pandemic and non-pandemic periods. The interviews with individuals from three kinds of affiliations were guided using different types of semi-structured outlines developed by our research team. Results: The interviews revealed that during the pandemic, the CHCs gave emergency responses to COVID-19, participated in regional collaboration for COVID-19 containment, delivered in-hospital COVID-19 screening and triage services while providing routine medical services, and continued to offer family doctor services. Four issues were found to be addressed: insufficient healthcare resources and workers, insufficient services targeting psychological influence of COVID-19, unsatisfied internal coordination and multi-departmental management, and lack of appropriate mechanisms incentivizing healthcare workers and invigorating primary care. Conclusion: In view of the challenges in fighting COVID-19 faced by primary care, it is recommended to take actions on the basis of appropriately balancing the delivery of routine primary care services and public health services, and tasks during pandemic and non-pandemic periods, and appropriately coordinating with higher level departments, as well as developing incentive programs according to the local conditions as a supplement for the government programs. Copyright © 2021 by the Chinese General Practice.

8.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 80(SUPPL 1):198-199, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1358911

ABSTRACT

Background: Granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine both vital to lung homeostasis and important in regulating inflammation and autoimmunity1,2,3 that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory failure and death in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation. 4-6 Mavrilimumab is a human anti GM-CSF receptor α monoclonal antibody capable of blocking GM-CSF signaling and downregulating the inflammatory process. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of mavrilimumab on clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation. Methods: This on-going, global, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled seamless transition Phase 2/3 trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mavrilimumab in adults hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and hyperinflammation. The Phase 2 portion comprised two groups: Cohort 1 patients requiring supplemental oxygen therapy without mechanical ventilation (to maintain SpO2 ≥92%) and Cohort 2 patients requiring mechanical ventilation, initiated ≤48 hours before randomization. Here, we report results for Phase 2, Cohort 1: 116 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and hyperinflammation from USA, Brazil, Chile, Peru, and South Africa;randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single intravenous administration of mavrilimumab (10 or 6 mg/kg) or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was proportion of patients alive and free of mechanical ventilation at Day 29. Secondary endpoints included [1] time to 2-point clinical improvement (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases COVID-19 ordinal scale), [2] time to return to room air, and [3] mortality, all measured through Day 29. The prespecified evidentiary standard was a 2-sided α of 0.2 (not adjusted for multiplicity). Results: Baseline demographics were balanced among the intervention groups;patients were racially diverse (43% non-white), had a mean age of 57 years, and 49% were obese (BMI ≥ 30). All patients received the local standard of care: 96% received corticosteroids (including dexamethasone) and 29% received remdesivir. No differences in outcomes were observed between the 10 mg/kg and 6 mg/ kg mavrilimumab arms. Results for these groups are presented together. Mavrilimumab recipients had a reduced requirement for mechanical ventilation and improved survival: at day 29, the proportion of patients alive and free of mechanical ventilation was 12.3 percentage points higher with mavrilimumab (86.7% of patients) than placebo (74.4% of patients) (Primary endpoint;p=0.1224). Mavrilimumab recipients experienced a 65% reduction in the risk of mechanical ventilation or death through Day 29 (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.35;p=0.0175). Day 29 mortality was 12.5 percentage points lower in mavrilimumab recipients (8%) compared to placebo (20.5%) (p=0.0718). Mavrilimumab recipients had a 61% reduction in the risk of death through Day 29 (HR= 0.39;p=0.0726). Adverse events occurred less frequently in mavrilimumab recipients compared to placebo, including secondary infections and thrombotic events (known complications of COVID-19). Thrombotic events occurred only in the placebo arm (5/40 [12.5%]). Conclusion: In a global, diverse population of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and hyperinflammation receiving supplemental oxygen therapy, corticosteroids, and remdesivir, a single infusion of mavrilimumab reduced progression to mechanical ventilation and improved survival. Results indicate mavrilimumab, a potent inhibitor of GM-CSF signaling, may have added clinical benefit on top of the current standard therapy for COVID-19. Of potential importance is that this treatment strategy is mechanistically independent of the specific virus or viral variant.

9.
Lancet Healthy Longevity ; 2(2):E65-E65, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1283180
10.
Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; 34(4):272-277, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1134275

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus, identified as a zoonotic pathogen, can cause pulmonary infections and even a pandemic. Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was induced by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), struck the world in December 2019. There is no specific drug for coronavirus. As a classical antimalarial drug, chloroquine has been proved to have antiviral activity by changing the pH of endocytosis, via autophagy reactions and by changing the glycosylation mode of the virus envelope. At the cellular level, chloroquine has inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. Recent clinical research results are beginning to show that chloroquine can improve the success rate and prognosis. Chloroquine has been used less clinically in recent years due to the many adverse reactions it causes. The safety of chloroquine used in coronavirus infection requires in-depth evaluation. This article summarizes research progress in the anti-coronavirus effect and safety of chloroquine in order to provide reference for its clinical application. © 2020 Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. All rights reserved.

11.
Chinese Journal of New Drugs ; 29(24):2809-2812, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1027439

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine Lianhua Qingwen Granules in treating suspected cases of children with Corona Virus Disease 2019. Methods: Clinical retrospective study method was used to collect 83 cases of common type children who met the diagnostic criteria of suspected cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 and were admitted to Xiangyang No.1 People's Hospital from January 28, 2020 to March 31. Among them, 42 patients in the treatment group received routine treatment (antiviral and symptomatic support treatment, combined with antibacterial treatment for infected patients) combined with traditional Chinese medicine Lianhua Qingwen Granules. The control group of 41 patients received routine treatment only. Clinical data were collected after 5 d of treatment, and the disappearance of main symptoms (fever and cough), the duration of fever, and other single symptoms (cough, nasal obstruction, runny nose, shortness of breath, muscle pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms) were compared between the two groups. Results: The disappearance rates of fever and cough in the treatment group were 83.3% and 57.9%, respectively, and those in the control group were 51.2% and 30.3%, respectively. The treatment group was significantly better than the control group (P<0.05). The disappearance rates of phlegm, shortness of breath and digestive tract symptoms in the treatment group were 66.7%, 100% and 87.5%, respectively, and those in the control group were 20%, 60% and 28.6%, respectively, with significant increases (P<0.05). Conclusion: Traditional Chinese medicine Lianhua Qingwen Granules can significantly improve fever, cough, phlegm, shortness of breath and gastrointestinal symptoms in children suspected of Corona Virus Disease 2019, providing preliminary clinical evidence for the prevention and treatment of pediatric cases.

12.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(0): E001, 2020 Feb 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-325
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