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1.
IEEE Internet of Things Journal ; 9(13):10668-10675, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1901474

ABSTRACT

In order to design effective public health policies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, local governments and organizations must be able to forecast the expected number of cases in their area. Although researchers have developed individual models for predicting COVID-19 based on sensor data without requiring a test, less research has been conducted on how to leverage those individual predictions in forecasting virus spread for determining hierarchical predictions from the community level to the state level. The multilevel adaptive and dynamic biosensor epidemic model, or m-ADBio, is designed to improve on the traditional susceptible–exposed–infectious–recovered (SEIR) model used to forecast the spread of COVID-19. In this study, the predictive performance of m-ADBio is examined at the state, county, and community levels through numerical experimentation. We find that the model improves over SEIR at all levels, but especially at the community level, where the m-ADBio model with sensor-based initial values yielded no statistically significant difference between the forecasted cases and the true observed data meaning that the model was highly accurate. Therefore, the m-ADBio model is expected to provide a more timely and accurate forecast to help policymakers optimize the pandemic management strategy.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2454-2458, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435936

ABSTRACT

Not all persons recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection develop SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We show that nonseroconversion is associated with younger age and higher reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold values and identify SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in the nasopharynx as a major correlate of the systemic antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2454-2458, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291007

ABSTRACT

Not all persons recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection develop SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We show that nonseroconversion is associated with younger age and higher reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold values and identify SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in the nasopharynx as a major correlate of the systemic antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
5.
Am J Surg ; 222(5): 937-943, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our study investigates how general surgery residency programs utilized social media to adapt to the challenges of COVID-19. METHODS: 319 participating general surgery residency programs provided by the Electronic Residency Application Service were analyzed in this study. Associated Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook accounts were assessed to find virtual open houses and externships. RESULTS: Of the 319 program, 188 (59%) were found to have a social media presence. A total of 348 social media accounts were found, as some of the programs had separate residency and department accounts. Of all the social media accounts, 112 (32%) of the accounts were created after March 1, 2020. Virtual open houses opportunities were found to be advertised across all platforms. CONCLUSION: Many general surgery programs responded to the physical limitations of COVID-19 pandemic by increasingly utilizing social media during the COVID-19 pandemic. Virtual opportunities should be considered as a novel approach for future outreach and recruitment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Surgery/education , Internship and Residency/methods , School Admission Criteria , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data
7.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5148

ABSTRACT

A review for summary of experience in prevention and control management of radiol. department under the background of 2019-nCoV infection

9.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 668, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To survey the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its influencing factors among patients with COVID-19 in their first medical follow up. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were discharged from 12 hospitals in Wenzhou, Zhejiang from Jan 17, 2020 to Mar 20, 2020. Prospectively collected and analyzed data included demographics, clinical symptoms, comorbidity, and chest CT imaging features at the first follow up, 1 month after discharge. All patients underwent the HRQoL evaluation with the Chinese version of Short-Form 36-item questionnaire (SF-36) as well as a general condition questionnaire. Factors associated with SF-36 were constructed using linear regression. Predictors of impaired physical component summary (PCS) and a mental component summary (MCS) were identified by logistic regression. RESULTS: SF-36 demonstrated a significant difference in HRQoL in patients with COVID-19, except in physical function (PF), when compared to the general Chinese population (p<0.05). The multiple linear regressions demonstrated that age was negatively associated with PF, role physical (RP), but positively associated with vitality (VT) (p<0.05). PF, bodily pain (BP), and role-emotional (RE) were negatively associated with the female sex (p<0.05). For mental health, the clinical subtypes were significant associated factors (p < 0.05). Length of stay (LOS) was strongly negatively associated with RE and RP, and positively associated with VT (p< 0.05). Logistical regression revealed that non-obese overweight (OR 3.71) and obesity (OR 3.94) were risk factors for a low PCS and female sex (OR 2.22) was a risk factor for a low MCS. CONCLUSIONS: Health-related quality of life was poor among COVID-19 patients at the 1 month follow-up. Patients suffered from significant physical and psychological impairment. Therefore, prospective monitoring of individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 is needed in order to fully understand the long-term impact of COVID-19, as well as to inform prompt and efficient interventions to alleviate suffering.

10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 331, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634362

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Development and validation of a single-step and accurate reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique (RT-LAMP) for rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 relative to commercial quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays to allow prompt initiation of proper medical care and containment of virus spread. Methods: Primers showing optimal in-silico features were subjected to analytical sensitivity and specificity to assess the limit of detection (LOD) and cross-reaction with closely- and distantly-related viral species, and clinically prominent bacterial and fungal species. In order to evaluate the clinical utility, our RT-LAMP was subjected to a large number of clinical samples, including 213 negative and 47 positive patients, relative to two commercial quantitative RT-PCR assays. Results: The analytical specificity and sensitivity of our assay was 100% and 500 copies/ml when serial dilution was performed in both water and sputum. Subjecting our RT-LAMP assay to clinical samples showed a high degree of specificity (99.5%), sensitivity (91.4%), positive predictive value (97.7%), and negative predictive value (98.1%) when used relative to qRT-PCR. Our RT-LAMP assay was two times faster than qRT-PCR and is storable at room temperature. A suspected case that later became positive tested positive using both our RT-LAMP and the two qRT-PCR assays, which shows the capability of our assay for screening purposes. Conclusions: We present a rapid RT-LAMP assay that could extend the capacity of laboratories to process two times more clinical samples relative to qRT-PCR and potentially could be used for high-throughput screening purposes when demand is increasing at critical situations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20042606

ABSTRACT

BackgroundRapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan prompted heightened surveillance in Guangzhou and elsewhere in China. Modes of contact and risk of transmission among close contacts have not been well estimated. MethodsWe included 4950 closes contacts from Guangzhou, and extracted data including modes of contact, laboratory testing, clinical characteristics of confirmed cases and source cases. We used logistic regression analysis to explore the risk factors associated with infection of close contacts. ResultsAmong 4950 closes contacts, the median age was 38.0 years, and males accounted for 50.2% (2484). During quarantine period, 129 cases (2.6%) were diagnosed, with 8 asymptomatic (6.2%), 49 mild (38.0%), and 5 (3.9%) severe to critical cases. The sensitivity of throat swab was 71.32% and 92.19% at first to second PCR test. Among different modes of contact, household contacts were the most dangerous in catching with infection of COVID-19, with an incidence of 10.2%. As the increase of age for close contacts and severity of source cases, the incidence of COVID-19 presented an increasing trend from 1.8% (0-17 years) to 4.2% (60 or over years), and from 0.33% for asymptomatic, 3.3% for mild, to 6.2% for severe and critical source cases, respectively. Manifestation of expectoration in source cases was also highly associated with an increased risk of infection in their close contacts (13.6%). Secondary cases were in general clinically milder and were less likely to have common symptoms than those of source cases. ConclusionsIn conclusion, the proportion of asymptomatic and mild infections account for almost half of the confirmed cases among close contacts. The household contacts were the main transmission mode, and clinically more severe cases were more likely to pass the infection to their close contacts. Generally, the secondary cases were clinically milder than those of source cases.

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