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1.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12851, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066470

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to examine the responses of commercial real estate markets to COVID-19 and the implications for post-pandemic cities. Using data of Florida’s metropolitan areas in a fixed effect regression model, we find that sales volumes of retail properties decline instantly under the shock of COVID-19 but are followed by a strong recovery after one quarter. Meanwhile, COVID-19 depresses the growth rate of rent for office property, but the impact is short-term, and the office rental market bounces back to about 70 percent one quarter later. In comparison, industrial properties witness a rise in the growth rate of sales and rent price. Results indicate that urban planners may consider adjusting the amount of lands allocated to different usages to meet the evolving demands of urban space in the post-pandemic era.

2.
Advanced functional materials ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2057270

ABSTRACT

High electrocatalytic activity with tunable luminescence is crucial for the development of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) luminophores. In this study, a porphyrin‐based heterobimetallic 2D metal organic framework (MOF), [(ZnTCPP)Co2(MeIm)] (1), is successfully self‐assembled from the zinc(II) tetrakis(4‐carboxyphenyl)porphine (ZnTCPP) linker and cobalt(II) ions in the presence of 2‐methylimidazole (MeIm) by a facile one‐pot reaction in methanol at room temperature. On the basis of the experimental results and the theoretical calculations, the MOF 1 contains paddle–wheel [Co2(‐CO2)4] secondary building units (SBUs) axially coordinated by a MeIm ligand, which is very beneficial to the electron transfer between the Co(II) ions and oxygen. Combining the photosensitizers ZnTCPP and the electroactive [Co2(‐CO2)4] SBUs, the 2D MOF 1 possesses an excellent ECL performance, and can be used as a novel ECL probe for rapid nonamplified detection of the RdRp gene of SARS‐CoV‐2 with an extremely low limit of detection (≈30 aM). A novel porphyrin‐based heterobimetallic 2D MOF, [(ZnTCPP)Co2(MeIm)] (1) is constructed to act as an excellent electrochemiluminescence probe for rapid nonamplified detection of SARS‐CoV‐2.

3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2122-e2131, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053007

ABSTRACT

The ongoing enzootic circulation of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East and North Africa is increasingly raising the concern about the possibility of its recombination with other human-adapted coronaviruses, particularly the pandemic SARS-CoV-2. We aim to provide an updated picture about ecological niches of MERS-CoV and associated socio-environmental drivers. Based on 356 confirmed MERS cases with animal contact reported to the WHO and 63 records of animal infections collected from the literature as of 30 May 2020, we assessed ecological niches of MERS-CoV using an ensemble model integrating three machine learning algorithms. With a high predictive accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 91.66% in test data), the ensemble model estimated that ecologically suitable areas span over the Middle East, South Asia and the whole North Africa, much wider than the range of reported locally infected MERS cases and test-positive animal samples. Ecological suitability for MERS-CoV was significantly associated with high levels of bareland coverage (relative contribution = 30.06%), population density (7.28%), average temperature (6.48%) and camel density (6.20%). Future surveillance and intervention programs should target the high-risk populations and regions informed by updated quantitative analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Camelus , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 38-45, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Selenium deficiency can be associated with increased susceptibility to some viral infections and even more severe diseases. In this study, we aimed to examine whether this association applies to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). METHOD: An observational study was conducted based on the data of 13,305 human SFTS cases reported in mainland China from 2010 to 2020. The associations among incidence, case fatality rate of SFTS, and crop selenium concentration at the county level were explored. The selenium level in a cohort of patients with SFTS was tested, and its relationship with clinical outcomes was evaluated. RESULTS: The association between selenium-deficient crops and the incidence rate of SFTS was confirmed by multivariate Poisson analysis, with an estimated incidence rate ratio (IRR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) of 4.549 (4.215-4.916) for moderate selenium-deficient counties and 16.002 (14.706-17.431) for severe selenium-deficient counties. In addition, a higher mortality rate was also observed in severe selenium-deficient counties with an IRR of 1.409 (95% CI: 1.061-1.909). A clinical study on 120 patients with SFTS showed an association between serum selenium deficiency and severe SFTS (odds ratio, OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.00-8.67) or fatal SFTS (OR: 7.55; 95% CI: 1.14-50.16). CONCLUSION: Selenium deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to SFTS and poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Bunyaviridae Infections , Phlebovirus , Selenium , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia , China/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
5.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2033993

ABSTRACT

Background: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that there was a strong correlation between COVID-19 and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the studies are limited, and the real biological mechanisms behind the IPF progression were still uncleared. Methods: GSE70866 and GSE 157103 datasets were downloaded. The weight gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) algorithms were conducted to identify the most correlated gene module with COVID-19. Then the genes were extracted to construct a risk signature in IPF patients by performing Univariate and Lasso Cox Regression analysis. Univariate and Multivariate Cox Regression analyses were used to identify the independent value for predicting the prognosis of IPF patients. What’s more, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene Ontology (GO), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were conducted to unveil the potential biological pathways. CIBERSORT algorithms were performed to calculate the correlation between the risk score and immune cells infiltrating levels. Results: Two hundred thirty three differentially expressed genes were calculated as the hub genes in COVID-19. Fourteen of these genes were identified as the prognostic differentially expressed genes in IPF. Three (MET, UCHL1, and IGF1) of the fourteen genes were chosen to construct the risk signature. The risk signature can greatly predict the prognosis of high-risk and low-risk groups based on the calculated risk score. The functional pathway enrichment analysis and immune infiltrating analysis showed that the risk signature may regulate the immune-related pathways and immune cells. Conclusion: We identified prognostic differentially expressed hub genes related to COVID-19 in IPF. A risk signature was constructed based on those genes and showed great value for predicting the prognosis in IPF patients. What’s more, three genes in the risk signature may be clinically valuable as potential targets for treating IPF patients and IPF patients with COVID-19.

6.
Database (Oxford) ; 20222022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017881

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been severely impacting global society since December 2019. The related findings such as vaccine and drug development have been reported in biomedical literature-at a rate of about 10 000 articles on COVID-19 per month. Such rapid growth significantly challenges manual curation and interpretation. For instance, LitCovid is a literature database of COVID-19-related articles in PubMed, which has accumulated more than 200 000 articles with millions of accesses each month by users worldwide. One primary curation task is to assign up to eight topics (e.g. Diagnosis and Treatment) to the articles in LitCovid. The annotated topics have been widely used for navigating the COVID literature, rapidly locating articles of interest and other downstream studies. However, annotating the topics has been the bottleneck of manual curation. Despite the continuing advances in biomedical text-mining methods, few have been dedicated to topic annotations in COVID-19 literature. To close the gap, we organized the BioCreative LitCovid track to call for a community effort to tackle automated topic annotation for COVID-19 literature. The BioCreative LitCovid dataset-consisting of over 30 000 articles with manually reviewed topics-was created for training and testing. It is one of the largest multi-label classification datasets in biomedical scientific literature. Nineteen teams worldwide participated and made 80 submissions in total. Most teams used hybrid systems based on transformers. The highest performing submissions achieved 0.8875, 0.9181 and 0.9394 for macro-F1-score, micro-F1-score and instance-based F1-score, respectively. Notably, these scores are substantially higher (e.g. 12%, higher for macro F1-score) than the corresponding scores of the state-of-art multi-label classification method. The level of participation and results demonstrate a successful track and help close the gap between dataset curation and method development. The dataset is publicly available via https://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/lu/LitCovid/biocreative/ for benchmarking and further development. Database URL https://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/lu/LitCovid/biocreative/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Mining/methods , Databases, Factual , Humans , PubMed , Publications
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 674, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To quantitatively assess the impact of the onset-to-diagnosis interval (ODI) on severity and death for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted based on the data on COVID-19 cases of China over the age of 40 years reported through China's National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System from February 5, 2020 to October 8, 2020. The impacts of ODI on severe rate (SR) and case fatality rate (CFR) were evaluated at individual and population levels, which was further disaggregated by sex, age and geographic origin. RESULTS: As the rapid decline of ODI from around 40 days in early January to < 3 days in early March, both CFR and SR of COVID-19 largely dropped below 5% in China. After adjusting for age, sex, and region, an effect of ODI on SR was observed with the highest OR of 2.95 (95% CI 2.37‒3.66) at Day 10-11 and attributable fraction (AF) of 29.1% (95% CI 22.2‒36.1%) at Day 8-9. However, little effect of ODI on CFR was observed. Moreover, discrepancy of effect magnitude was found, showing a greater effect from ODI on SR among patients of male sex, younger age, and those cases in Wuhan. CONCLUSION: The ODI was significantly associated with the severity of COVID-19, highlighting the importance of timely diagnosis, especially for patients who were confirmed to gain increased benefit from early diagnosis to some extent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 925922, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933699

ABSTRACT

Although feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection is extremely common in cats, there are currently few effective treatments. A peptide derived from the heptad repeat 2 (HR2) domain of the coronavirus (CoV) spike protein has shown effective for inhibition of various human and animal CoVs in vitro, but further use of FCoV-HR2 in vivo has been limited by lack of practical delivery vectors and small animal infection model. To overcome these technical challenges, we first constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis (rBSCotB-HR2P) expressing spore coat protein B (CotB) fused to an HR2-derived peptide (HR2P) from a serotype II feline enteric CoV (FECV). Immunogenic capacity was evaluated in mice after intragastric or intranasal administration, showing that recombinant spores could trigger strong specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Furthermore, we developed a novel mouse model for FECV infection by transduction with its primary receptor (feline aminopeptidase N) using an E1/E3-deleted adenovirus type 5 vector. This model can be used to study the antiviral immune response and evaluate vaccines or drugs, and is an applicable choice to replace cats for the study of FECV. Oral administration of rBSCotB-HR2P in this mouse model effectively protected against FECV challenge and significantly reduced pathology in the digestive tract. Owing to its safety, low cost, and probiotic features, rBSCotB-HR2P is a promising oral vaccine candidate for use against FECV/FCoV infection in cats.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Feline , Animals , Bacillus subtilis/genetics , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Cats , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Coronavirus, Feline/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity , Mice , Peptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spores, Bacterial/genetics
9.
PeerJ ; 10: e13608, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912095

ABSTRACT

Background: Thrombocytopenia was common in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the infection, while the role of thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 pathogenesis and its relationship with systemic host response remained obscure. The study aimed to systematically evaluate the relationship between thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 patients and clinical, haematological and biochemical markers of the disease as well as adverse outcomes. Methods: To assess the relationship between abnormal platelet levels and disease progression, a multi-center retrospective cohort study was conducted. COVID-19 patients with thrombocytopenia and a sub-cohort of matched patients without thrombocytopenia were compared for their clinical manifestations, haematological disorders, biochemical parameters, inflammatory markers and clinical outcome. Results: Thrombocytopenia was present in 127 of 2,209 analyzed patients on admission. Compared with the control group, thrombocytopenia patients developed significantly higher frequency of respiratory failure (41.9% vs. 22.6%, P = 0.020), intensive care unit entrance (25.6% vs. 11.5%, P = 0.012), disseminated intravascular coagulation (45.2% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.001), more altered platelet morphology indexes and coagulation perturbation, higher levels of inflammatory markers. In addition, a significantly increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.08, 95% confidence interval 2.26-4.18, P < 0.001) was also observed in the patients with thrombocytopenia. Late development of thrombocytopenia beyond 14 days post-symptom was observed in 61 patients, from whom a comparable mortality rate yet longer duration to death was observed compared to those with early thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: Our finding from this study adds to previous evidence that thrombocytopenia is associated with adverse outcome of the disease and recommend that platelet count and indices be included alongside other haematological, biochemical and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients' assessment during the hospital stay.

10.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1897880

ABSTRACT

Objective: People suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are prone to develop pulmonary fibrosis (PF), but there is currently no definitive treatment for COVID-19/PF co-occurrence. Kaempferol with promising antiviral and anti-fibrotic effects is expected to become a potential treatment for COVID-19 and PF comorbidities. Therefore, this study explored the targets and molecular mechanisms of kaempferol against COVID-19/PF co-occurrence by bioinformatics and network pharmacology. Methods: Various open-source databases and Venn Diagram tool were applied to confirm the targets of kaempferol against COVID-19/PF co-occurrence. Protein-protein interaction (PPI), MCODE, key transcription factors, tissue-specific enrichment, molecular docking, Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were used to clarify the influential molecular mechanisms of kaempferol against COVID-19 and PF comorbidities. Results: 290 targets and 203 transcription factors of kaempferol against COVID-19/PF co-occurrence were captured. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase SRC (SRC), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8), RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT1), transcription factor p65 (RELA) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PIK3CA) were identified as the most critical targets, and kaempferol showed effective binding activities with the above critical eight targets. Further, anti-COVID-19/PF co-occurrence effects of kaempferol were associated with the regulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, immunity, virus infection, cell growth process and metabolism. EGFR, interleukin 17 (IL-17), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT serine/threonine kinase (PI3K/AKT) and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways were identified as the key anti-COVID-19/PF co-occurrence pathways. Conclusion: Kaempferol is a candidate treatment for COVID-19/PF co-occurrence. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the regulation of critical targets (EGFR, SRC, MAPK3, MAPK1, MAPK8, AKT1, RELA, PIK3CA and so on) and EGFR, IL-17, TNF, HIF-1, PI3K/AKT and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. This study contributes to guiding development of new drugs for COVID-19 and PF comorbidities.

11.
Bioengineering ; 9(7):266, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894340

ABSTRACT

Lateral flow assays (LFAs) have attracted much attention as rapid and affordable point-of-care devices for medical diagnostics. The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has further highlighted the importance of LFAs. Many efforts have been made to enhance the sensitivity of LFAs. In recent years, silica nanomaterials have been used to either amplify the signal of label materials or provide stability, resulting in better detection performance. In this review, the recent progress of silica-nanomaterial-assisted LFAs is summarized. The impact of the structure of silica nanomaterials on LFA performance, the challenges and prospects in this research area are also discussed.

12.
Medicina clinica (English ed.) ; 158(10):458-465, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888293

ABSTRACT

Background Few studies have investigated the impacts of metabolic syndrome (MS) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We described the clinical features and prognosis of confirmed COVID-19 patients with MS during hospitalization and after discharge. Methods Two hundred and thirty-three COVID-19 patients from the hospitals in 8 cities of Jiangsu, China were retrospectively included. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients were described and risk factors of severe illness were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results Forty-five (19.3%) of 233 COVID-19 patients had MS. The median age of COVID-19 patients with MS was significantly higher than non-MS patients (53.0 years vs. 46.0 years, P = 0.004). There were no significant differences of clinical symptoms, abnormal chest CT images, and treatment drugs between two groups. More patients with MS had severe illness (33.3% vs. 6.4%, P < 0.001) and critical illness (4.4% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.037) than non-MS patients. The proportions of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in MS patients were also higher than non-MS patients during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that concurrent MS (odds ratio [OR] 7.668, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.062–19.201, P < 0.001) and lymphopenia (OR 3.315, 95% CI 1.306–8.411, P = 0.012) were independent risk factors of severe illness of COVID-19. At a median follow-up of 28 days after discharge, bilateral pneumonia was found in 95.2% of MS patients, while only 54.7% of non-MS patients presented bilateral pneumonia. Conclusions 19.3% of COVID-19 patients had MS in our study. COVID-19 patients with MS are more likely to develop severe complications and have worse prognosis. More attention should be paid to COVID-19 patients with MS.

13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010357, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus (ST) is a life-threatening infectious disease if appropriate treatment is unavailable. Large discrepancy of clinical severity of ST patients was reported among age groups, and the underlying risk factors for severe disease are unclear. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological data of ST patients were collected in 55 surveillance hospitals located in Guangzhou City, China, from 2012 to 2018. Severe prognosis and related factors were determined and compared between pediatric and elderly patients. RESULTS: A total of 2,074 ST patients including 209 pediatric patients and 1,865 elderly patients were included, with a comparable disease severity rate of 11.0% (95% CI 7.1%-16.1%) and 10.3% (95% CI 9.0%-11.8%). Different frequencies of clinical characteristics including lymphadenopathy, skin rash, enlarged tonsils, etc. were observed between pediatric and elderly patients. Presence of peripheral edema and decreased hemoglobin were the most important predictors of severe illness in pediatric patients with adjusted ORs by 38.99 (9.96-152.67, p<0.001) and 13.22 (1.54-113.50, p = 0.019), respectively, while presence of dyspnea and increased total bilirubin were the potential determinants of severe disease in elderly patients with adjusted ORs by 11.69 (7.33-18.64, p<0.001) and 3.17 (1.97-5.11, p<0.001), respectively. Compared with pediatric patients, elderly patients were more likely to receive doxycycline (64.8% v.s 9.9%, p<0.001), while less likely to receive azithromycin therapy (5.0% v.s 41.1%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The disease severity rate is comparable between pediatric and elderly ST patients, while different clinical features and laboratory indicators were associated with development of severe complications for pediatric and elderly patients, which is helpful for diagnosis and progress assessment of disease for ST patients.


Subject(s)
Scrub Typhus , Aged , Child , China/epidemiology , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Humans , Risk Factors , Scrub Typhus/complications , Scrub Typhus/drug therapy , Scrub Typhus/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(4):7-11, 2020.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812679

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the first COVID-19 case and related family cluster outbreaks in Jinan City.

15.
Biomed J ; 45(3): 472-481, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on public health has mandated an 'all hands on deck' scientific response. The current clinical study and basic research on COVID-19 are mainly based on existing publications or our knowledge of coronavirus. However, efficiently retrieval of accurate, relevant knowledge on COVID-19 can pose significant challenges for researchers. METHODS: To improve quality in accessing important literature findings, we developed a novel natural language processing (NLP) method to automatically recognize the associations among potential targeted host organ systems, associated clinical manifestations, and pathways. We further validated these associations through clinician experts' evaluations and prioritize candidate drug targets through bioinformatics network analysis. RESULTS: We found that the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor that SARS-CoV-2 required for cell entry, is associated with cardiovascular and endocrine organ system and diseases. Furthermore, we found SARS-CoV-2 is associated with some important pathways such as IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta-induced dyslipidemia, which are related to inflammation, lipogenesis, and oxidative stress mechanisms, suggesting potential drug candidates. CONCLUSION: We prioritized the list of therapeutic targets involved in antiviral and immune modulating drugs for experimental validation, rendering it valuable during public health crises marked by stresses on clinical and research capacity. Our automatic intelligence pipeline also contributes to other novel and emerging disease management and treatments in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Knowledge Discovery , Natural Language Processing , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented worldwide, which impacted a broad spectrum of acute respiratory infections (ARI). METHODS: Etiologically diagnostic data from 142 559 cases with ARIs, who were tested for eight viral pathogens (influenza virus, IFV; respiratory syncytial virus, RSV; human parainfluenza virus, HPIV; human adenovirus; human metapneumovirus; human coronavirus, HCoV; human bocavirus, HBoV, and human rhinovirus, HRV) between 2012 and 2021, were analyzed to assess the changes of respiratory infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years. RESULTS: Test positive rates of all respiratory viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with changes ranging from -17·2% for RSV to -87·6% for IFV. Sharp decreases mostly occurred between February and August when massive NPIs remained active, although HRV rebounded to the historical level during the summer. While IFV and HMPV were consistently suppressed year round, RSV, HPIV, HCoV, HRV HBov resurged and went beyond historical levels during September, 2020-January, 2021, after NPIs were largely relaxed and schools reopened. Resurgence was more prominent among children younger than 18 years and in Northern China. These observations remain valid after accounting for seasonality and long-term trend of each virus. CONCLUSIONS: Activities of respiratory viral infections were reduced substantially in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and massive NPIs were likely the main driver. Lifting of NPIs can lead to resurgence of viral infections, particularly in children.

18.
Epidemics ; 39: 100553, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the relative transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 virus across different contact settings and the possibility of superspreading events is important for prioritizing disease control. Such assessment requires proper consideration of individual level exposure history, which is made possible by contact tracing. METHODS: The case-ascertained study in Shandong, China including 97 laboratory-confirmed index cases and 3158 close contacts. All close contacts were quarantined after their last exposure of index cases. Contacts were tested for COVID-19 regularly by PCR to identify both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. We developed a Bayesian transmission model to the contact tracing data to account for different duration of exposure among individuals to transmission risk in different settings, and the heterogeneity of infectivity of cases. RESULTS: We estimate secondary attack rates (SAR) to be 39% (95% credible interval (CrI): 20-64%) in households, 30% (95% CrI: 11-67%) in healthcare facilities, 23% (95% CrI: 7-51%) at workplaces, and 4% (95% CrI: 1-17%) during air travel. Models allowing heterogeneity of infectivity of cases provided a better goodness-of-fit. We estimated that 64% (95% CrI: 55-72%) of cases did not generate secondary transmissions, and 20% (95% CrI: 15-26%) cases explained 80% of secondary transmissions. CONCLUSIONS: Household, healthcare facilities and workplaces are efficient setting for transmission. Timely identification of potential superspreaders in most transmissible settings remains crucial for containing the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans
19.
Bioanalysis ; 14(6): 317-324, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704052

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread all over the world. In the process of emergency use authorization, the Center for Medical Device Evaluation of the China National Medical Products Administration issued 'Key Points of Technical Review for the Registration of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen/Antibody Detection Reagents' as the guidance of registration of antigen and antibody test reagents for the industry. In this document, clinical evaluation requirements of antigen detection reagents are elaborated. Based on the Key Points document and the authors' review practice, this article explains the evaluation methods and requirements of clinical performance of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests, then analyzes the application scenarios and intended use of antigen detection reagents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , China , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Indicators and Reagents , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695493

ABSTRACT

Emergent viruses (namely, HSV-1, CMV, and EBV) reactivation were common in critically ill patients and/or immunosuppressed patients. This study aimed to understand the clinical manifestations and reactivation of the emergent viruses in SARS-CoV-2-Negative community acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of CAP patients from January to March 2020, in our university hospital in China. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of emergent viruses. In all patients, the positive rates of EBV, HSV, and CMV were 23.43% (15/64), 22.06% (15/68), and 12.50% (8/64), respectively. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (98, 57.99%) and dry cough (55, 32.54%). The levels of albumin, hemoglobin, lymphocyte count, and CD4 + T lymphocyte count in emergent viruses positive group were lower than those of viruses negative group (P < 0.05). The initial chest CT features of these patients were diverse. The most common manifestations were ground-glass opacity (91/169, 53.85%) and pulmonary nodule (88/169, 52.07%). More emergent viruses positive patients have bilateral upper lobes involvement than emergent viruses negative patients (P < 0.05). A total of 80.47% patients (136/169) received empirical antimicrobial treatment. The most commonly used antibiotic regimen was fluoroquinolone monotherapy (80/169, 47.34%). The emergent viruses positive patients have poorer clinical outcome (P < 0.05). In conclusion, emergent viruses reactivation was common in SARS-CoV-2-Negative CAP patients. Emergent viruses positive patients have poorer cellular immune function, more severer conditions and poorer prognosis. Fluoroquinolones may be a therapeutic option for CAP patients.

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