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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 271: 109494, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886124

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that has the potential for cross-species infection. Many viruses have been reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). To date, little is known about whether and, if so, how the UPR is activated by PDCoV infection. Here, we investigated the activation state of UPR pathways and their effects on viral replication during PDCoV infection. We found that PDCoV infection induced ERS and activated all three known UPR pathways (inositol-requiring enzyme 1 [IRE1], activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and PKR-like ER kinase [PERK]), as demonstrated by IRE1-mediated XBP1 mRNA cleavage and increased mRNA expression of XBP1s, ATF4, CHOP, GADD34, GRP78, and GRP94, as well as phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Through pharmacologic treatment, RNA interference, and overexpression experiments, we confirmed the negative role of the PERK-eIF2α pathway and the positive regulatory role of the ATF6 pathway, but found no obvious effect of IRE1 pathway, on PDCoV replication. Taken together, our results characterize, for the first time, the state of the ERS response during PDCoV infection and identify the PERK and ATF6 pathways as potential antiviral targets.


Subject(s)
Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Unfolded Protein Response , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Swine , eIF-2 Kinase/genetics , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism
2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463827

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes diarrhoea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission. No effective PDCoV vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available. Here, we successfully generated an infectious clone of PDCoV strain CHN-HN-2014 using a combination of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based reverse genetics system with a one-step homologous recombination. The recued virus (rCHN-HN-2014) possesses similar growth characteristics to the parental virus in vitro. Based on the established infectious clone and CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a PDCoV reporter virus expressing nanoluciferase (Nluc) was constructed by replacing the NS6 gene. Using two drugs, lycorine and resveratrol, we found that the Nluc reporter virus exhibited high sensibility and easy quantification to rapid antiviral screening. We further used the Nluc reporter virus to test the susceptibility of different cell lines to PDCoV and found that cell lines derived from various host species, including human, swine, cattle and monkey enables PDCoV replication, broadening our understanding of the PDCoV cell tropism range. Taken together, our reporter viruses are available to high throughput screening for antiviral drugs and uncover the infectivity of PDCoV in various cells, which will accelerate our understanding of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/metabolism , Genes, Reporter/genetics , Luciferases/genetics , A549 Cells , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Deltacoronavirus/growth & development , Dogs , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Luciferases/biosynthesis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Nanostructures , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
3.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0134521, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441856

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes serious diarrhea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission. Although extensive studies have been reported on the biology and pathogenesis of PDCoV, the mechanisms by which PDCoV enters cells are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated how PDCoV enters IPI-2I cells, a line of porcine intestinal epithelial cells derived from pig ileum. Immunofluorescence assays, small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation results revealed that PDCoV entry into IPI-2I cells depended on clathrin, dynamin, and a low-pH environment but was independent of caveolae. Specific inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) revealed that PDCoV entry involves macropinocytosis and depends on NHE rather than on PI3K. Additionally, Rab5 and Rab7, but not Rab11, regulated PDCoV endocytosis. This is the first study to demonstrate that PDCoV uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis as alternative endocytic pathways to enter porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We also discussed the entry pathways of PDCoV into other porcine cell lines. Our findings reveal the entry mechanisms of PDCoV and provide new insight into the PDCoV life cycle. IMPORTANCE An emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, PDCoV, has the potential for cross-species transmission, attracting extensive attenuation. Characterizing the detailed process of PDCoV entry into cells will deepen our understanding of the viral infection and pathogenesis and provide clues for therapeutic intervention against PDCoV. With the objective, we used complementary approaches to dissect the process in PDCoV-infected IPI-2I cells, a line of more physiologically relevant intestinal epithelial cells to PDCoV infection in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that PDCoV enters IPI-2I cells via macropinocytosis, which does not require a specific receptor, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which requires a low-pH environment and dynamin, while a caveola-mediated endocytic pathway is used by PDCoV to enter swine testicular (ST) cells and porcine kidney (LLC-PK1) cells. These findings provide a molecular detail of the cellular entry pathways of PDCoV and may direct us toward novel antiviral drug development.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/physiology , Dynamins/metabolism , Endocytosis , Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Clathrin/metabolism , Coronavirus/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ileum/virology , Kidney/virology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pinocytosis , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization , rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
4.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270126

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus accessory proteins are a unique set of proteins whose genes are interspersed among or within the genes encoding structural proteins. Different coronavirus genera, or even different species within the same coronavirus genus, encode varying amounts of accessory proteins, leading to genus- or species-specificity. Though accessory proteins are dispensable for the replication of coronavirus in vitro, they play important roles in regulating innate immunity, viral proliferation, and pathogenicity. The function of accessory proteins on virus infection and pathogenesis is an area of particular interest. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on accessory proteins of several representative coronaviruses that infect humans or animals, including the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with an emphasis on their roles in interaction between virus and host, mainly involving stress response, innate immunity, autophagy, and apoptosis. The cross-talking among these pathways is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immune Evasion , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
5.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 935-941, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045234

ABSTRACT

Enteric coronaviruses (CoVs) are major pathogens that cause diarrhea in piglets. To date, four porcine enteric CoVs have been identified: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and HKU2-like porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV). In this study, we investigated the replicative capacity of these four enteric CoVs in LLC-PK1 cells, a porcine kidney cell line. The results showed that LLC-PK1 cells are susceptible to all four enteric CoVs, particularly to TGEV and PDCoV infections, indicating that LLC-PK1 cells can be applied to porcine enteric CoV research in vitro, particularly for coinfection studies.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/growth & development , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/growth & development , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/growth & development , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Susceptibility , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Intestine, Small/virology , LLC-PK1 Cells , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells
6.
Virus Res ; 295: 198306, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031553

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25 H) is a key enzyme regulating cholesterol metabolism and also acts as a broad antiviral host restriction factor. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that can cause vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration and even death in newborn piglets. In this study, we found that PDCoV infection significantly upregulated the expression of CH25H in IPI-FX cells, a cell line of porcine ileum epithelium. Overexpression of CH25H inhibited PDCoV replication, whereas CH25H silencing using RNA interference promoted PDCoV infection. Treatment with 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), the catalysate of cholesterol via CH25H, inhibited PDCoV proliferation by impairing viral invasion of IPI-FX cells. Furthermore, a mutant CH25H (CH25H-M) lacking hydroxylase activity also inhibited PDCoV infection to a lesser extent. Taken together, our data suggest that CH25H acts as a host restriction factor to inhibit the proliferation of PDCoV but this inhibitory effect is not completely dependent on its enzymatic activity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Deltacoronavirus , Steroid Hydroxylases/physiology , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Steroid Hydroxylases/antagonists & inhibitors , Swine , Virus Replication
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108785, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827867

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting and mortality in nursing piglets. Type III interferons (IFN-λs) are the major antiviral cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells, the target cells in vivo for PDCoV. In this study, we found that PDCoV infection remarkably inhibited Sendai virus-induced IFN-λ1 production by suppressing transcription factors IRF and NF-κB in IPI-2I cells, a line of porcine intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. We also confirmed that PDCoV infection impeded the activation of IFN-λ1 promoter stimulated by RIG-I, MDA5 and MAVS, but not by TBK1 and IRF1. Although the expression levels of IRF1 and MAVS were not changed, PDCoV infection resulted in reduction of the number of peroxisomes, the platform for MAVS to activate IRF1, and subsequent type III IFN production. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PDCoV suppresses type III IFN responses to circumvent the host's antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Intestines/cytology , Intestines/virology , Kidney/cytology , Kidney/virology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/immunology , Sendai virus/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Swine/virology , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology
8.
Virology ; 539: 38-48, 2020 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822398

ABSTRACT

Ionic calcium (Ca2+) is a versatile intracellular second messenger that plays important roles in cellular physiological and pathological processes. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes serious vomiting and diarrhea in suckling piglets. In this study, the role of Ca2+ to PDCoV infection was investigated. PDCoV infection was found to upregulate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations of IPI-2I cells. Chelating extracellular Ca2+ by EGTA inhibited PDCoV replication, and this inhibitory effect was overcome by replenishment with CaCl2. Treatment with Ca2+ channel blockers, particularly the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker diltiazem hydrochloride, inhibited PDCoV infection significantly. Mechanistically, diltiazem hydrochloride reduces PDCoV infection by inhibiting the replication step of the viral replication cycle. Additionally, knockdown of CACNA1S, the L-type Ca2+ voltage-gated channel subunit, inhibited PDCoV replication. The combined results demonstrate that PDCoV modulates calcium influx to favor its replication.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Virus Replication , Animals , Calcium Signaling , Swine , Swine, Miniature
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