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1.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964108

ABSTRACT

The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants poses a serious threat to human health worldwide. Recently, the emergence of Omicron has presented a new challenge to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic. A convenient and reliable in vitro neutralization assay is an important method for validating the efficiency of antibodies, vaccines, and other potential drugs. Here, we established an effective assay based on a pseudovirus carrying a full-length spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 variants in the HIV-1 backbone, with a luciferase reporter gene inserted into the non-replicate pseudovirus genome. The key parameters for packaging the pseudovirus were optimized, including the ratio of the S protein expression plasmids to the HIV backbone plasmids and the collection time for the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Kappa, and Omicron pseudovirus particles. The pseudovirus neutralization assay was validated using several approved or developed monoclonal antibodies, underscoring that Omicron can escape some neutralizing antibodies, such as REGN10987 and REGN10933, while S309 and ADG-2 still function with reduced neutralization capability. The neutralizing capacity of convalescent plasma from COVID-19 convalescent patients in Wuhan was tested against these pseudoviruses, revealing the immune evasion of Omicron. Our work established a practical pseudovirus-based neutralization assay for SARS-CoV-2 variants, which can be conducted safely under biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) conditions, and this assay will be a promising tool for studying and characterizing vaccines and therapeutic candidates against Omicron-included SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and job burnout among frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) across six Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. We also investigated the associated risk and protective factors. METHODS: Frontline HCWs (N = 1381) from the participating countries participated between 4 January and 14 June 2021. The participants completed self-reported surveys on anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-8), and job burnout (PWLS). Multivariate logistic regressions were performed with anxiety, depression, and job burnout as outcomes and sociodemographic and job characteristics and HCW perceptions as predictors. RESULTS: The average proportion of HCWs reporting moderate anxiety, moderately severe depression, and job burnout across all countries were 10%, 4%, and 20%, respectively. Working longer hours than usual (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 3.51), perceived high job risk (1.98; 2.22), and inadequate personal protective equipment (1.89; 2.11) were associated with increased odds of anxiety and job burnout while working night shifts was associated with increased risk of depression (3.23). Perceived good teamwork was associated with lower odds of anxiety (0.46), depression (0.43), and job burnout (0.39). CONCLUSION: Job burnout remains a foremost issue among HCWs. Potential opportunities to improve HCW wellness are discussed.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Viruses ; 14(6):1332, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894259

ABSTRACT

The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants poses a serious threat to human health worldwide. Recently, the emergence of Omicron has presented a new challenge to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic. A convenient and reliable in vitro neutralization assay is an important method for validating the efficiency of antibodies, vaccines, and other potential drugs. Here, we established an effective assay based on a pseudovirus carrying a full-length spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 variants in the HIV-1 backbone, with a luciferase reporter gene inserted into the non-replicate pseudovirus genome. The key parameters for packaging the pseudovirus were optimized, including the ratio of the S protein expression plasmids to the HIV backbone plasmids and the collection time for the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Kappa, and Omicron pseudovirus particles. The pseudovirus neutralization assay was validated using several approved or developed monoclonal antibodies, underscoring that Omicron can escape some neutralizing antibodies, such as REGN10987 and REGN10933, while S309 and ADG-2 still function with reduced neutralization capability. The neutralizing capacity of convalescent plasma from COVID-19 convalescent patients in Wuhan was tested against these pseudoviruses, revealing the immune evasion of Omicron. Our work established a practical pseudovirus-based neutralization assay for SARS-CoV-2 variants, which can be conducted safely under biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) conditions, and this assay will be a promising tool for studying and characterizing vaccines and therapeutic candidates against Omicron-included SARS-CoV-2 variants.

4.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(11):6380, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857801

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study examined the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and job burnout among frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) across six Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. We also investigated the associated risk and protective factors. Methods: Frontline HCWs (N = 1381) from the participating countries participated between 4 January and 14 June 2021. The participants completed self-reported surveys on anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-8), and job burnout (PWLS). Multivariate logistic regressions were performed with anxiety, depression, and job burnout as outcomes and sociodemographic and job characteristics and HCW perceptions as predictors. Results: The average proportion of HCWs reporting moderate anxiety, moderately severe depression, and job burnout across all countries were 10%, 4%, and 20%, respectively. Working longer hours than usual (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.82;3.51), perceived high job risk (1.98;2.22), and inadequate personal protective equipment (1.89;2.11) were associated with increased odds of anxiety and job burnout while working night shifts was associated with increased risk of depression (3.23). Perceived good teamwork was associated with lower odds of anxiety (0.46), depression (0.43), and job burnout (0.39). Conclusion: Job burnout remains a foremost issue among HCWs. Potential opportunities to improve HCW wellness are discussed.

5.
Epidemics ; 39: 100581, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851044

ABSTRACT

We present a country specific method to calculate the COVID-19 vaccination coverage needed for herd immunity by considering age structure, age group-specific contact patterns, relative infectivity and susceptibility of children to adults, vaccination effectiveness and seroprevalence prior to vaccination. We find that across all six countries, vaccination of adults age 60 and above has little impact on Reff and this is could be due to the smaller number of contacts between this age group and the rest of the population according to the contact matrices used. If R0 is above 6, herd immunity by vaccine alone is unattainable for most countries either if vaccination is only available for adults or that vaccine effectiveness is lower at 65% against symptomatic infections. In this situation, additional control measures, booster shots, if they improve protection against infection, or the extension of vaccination to children, are required. For a highly transmissible variant with R0 up to 8, herd immunity is possible for all countries and for all four scenarios of varying relative infectivity and susceptibility of children compared to adults, if vaccine effectiveness is very high at 95% against symptomatic infections and that high vaccination coverage is achieved for both adults and children. In addition, we show that the effective reproduction number will vary between countries even if the same proportion of the population is vaccinated, depending on the demographics, the contact rates and the previous pre-vaccination seroprevalence in the country. This therefore means that care must be taken in extrapolating population level impacts of certain vaccine coverages from one country to another.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Herd , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination Coverage
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842675

ABSTRACT

IntroductionSeveral treatment options are available for COVID-19 to date. However, the use of a combination of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is necessary for jurisdictions to contain its spread. Although the implementation cost of NPIs may be low from the healthcare system perspective, it can be costly when considering the indirect costs from the societal perspective. COVID-19 vaccination campaigns have begun in several countries worldwide. Nonetheless, the quantity of vaccines available remain limited over the next 1 to 2 years. A tool for informing vaccine prioritisation that considers both cost and effectiveness will be highly useful. This study aims to identify the most cost-effective combination of COVID-19 response policies, using Singapore as an example.Methods and analysisAn age-stratified Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model will be used to generate the number of infections stratified by disease severity under different intervention scenarios. Polices of interest include test-trace-isolate, travel restriction, compulsory face mask and hygiene practices, social distancing, dexamethasone/remdesivir therapy and vaccination. The latest phase 3 trial results and the WHO Target Product Profiles for COVID-19 vaccines will be used to model vaccine characteristics. A cost (expected resource utilisation and productivity losses) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) will be attached to these outputs for a cost-utility analysis. The primary outcome measure will be the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio generated from the incremental cost of policy alternatives expressed as a ratio of the incremental benefits (QALYs gained). Efficacy of policy options will be gathered from literature review and from its observed impacts in Singapore. Cost data will be gathered from healthcare institutions, Ministry of Health and published data. Sensitivity analysis such as threshold analysis and scenario analysis will be conducted.Ethics and disseminationEthics approval was not required for this study. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals.

7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 139, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815514

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant shows substantial resistance to neutralization by infection- and vaccination-induced antibodies, highlighting the demands for research on the continuing discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Here, we developed a panel of bnAbs against Omicron and other variants of concern (VOCs) elicited by vaccination of adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV). We also investigated the human longitudinal antibody responses following vaccination and demonstrated how the bnAbs evolved over time. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), named ZWD12, exhibited potent and broad neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Kappa, Delta, and Omicron by blocking the spike protein binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and provided complete protection in the challenged prophylactic and therapeutic K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse model. We defined the ZWD12 epitope by determining its structure in complex with the spike (S) protein via cryo-electron microscopy. This study affords the potential to develop broadly therapeutic mAb drugs and suggests that the RBD epitope bound by ZWD12 is a rational target for the design of a broad spectrum of vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Viral Envelope Proteins
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324160

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has created a worldwide public health emergency, and there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to control this severe infectious disease. Here, we found that a single vaccination with a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Ad5-nCoV) protected mice completely against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Additionally, a single vaccination with Ad5-nCoV protected ferrets from SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper respiratory tract. This study suggested that a combination of intramuscular and mucosal vaccination maybe provide a desirable protective efficacy and different Ad5-nCoV delivery modes are worth further investigation in human clinical trials.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314877

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread widely and led to high disease burden around the world. This study aimed to explore key parameters of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to assess the effectiveness of interventions to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A susceptible – exposed – infectious – asymptomatic – recovered (SEIAR) model was developed for the assessment. Data of symptomatic and asymptomatic infection of SARS-CoV-2 were collected to calculate the key parameters of the model in Ningbo City, China. Results: A total of 157 confirmed COVID-19 cases (including 51 imported cases and 106 secondary cases) and 30 asymptomatic infections were reported in Ningbo City. The proportion of asymptomatic has an increasing trend. The proportion of asymptomatic of elder people was lower than younger people, and the difference was statistical significant (Fisher’s Exact Test, P = 0.034). There were 22 clusters associated with 167 SARS-CoV-2 infections, among which 29 cases were asymptomatic, with a proportion of 17.37%. We found that the secondary attack rate of asymptomatic was almost the same as that of symptomatic cases, and no significance was observed (χ2 = 1.350, P = 0.245) by Kruskal-Wallis test. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was 1.43 which revealed that the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was moderate. If the interventions were not strengthened, the duration of the outbreak would last about 16 months with a simulated attack rate of 44.15%. The total attack rate and duration of the outbreak would increase along with the increasing delay of intervention. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 had moderate transmissibility in Ningbo City, China. Asymptomatic infection has the same transmissibility as symptomatic. The integrated interventions were implemented at different stages during the outbreak, which found to be exceedingly effective in China.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258866, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480457

ABSTRACT

AIM: The long-term stress, anxiety and job burnout experienced by healthcare workers (HCWs) are important to consider as the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic stresses healthcare systems globally. The primary objective was to examine the changes in the proportion of HCWs reporting stress, anxiety, and job burnout over six months during the peak of the pandemic in Singapore. The secondary objective was to examine the extent that objective job characteristics, HCW-perceived job factors, and HCW personal resources were associated with stress, anxiety, and job burnout. METHOD: A sample of HCWs (doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, administrative and operations staff; N = 2744) was recruited via invitation to participate in an online survey from four tertiary hospitals. Data were gathered between March-August 2020, which included a 2-month lockdown period. HCWs completed monthly web-based self-reported assessments of stress (Perceived Stress Scale-4), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), and job burnout (Physician Work Life Scale). RESULTS: The majority of the sample consisted of female HCWs (81%) and nurses (60%). Using random-intercept logistic regression models, elevated perceived stress, anxiety and job burnout were reported by 33%, 13%, and 24% of the overall sample at baseline respectively. The proportion of HCWs reporting stress and job burnout increased by approximately 1·0% and 1·2% respectively per month. Anxiety did not significantly increase. Working long hours was associated with higher odds, while teamwork and feeling appreciated at work were associated with lower odds, of stress, anxiety, and job burnout. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and job burnout showed a mild increase over six months, even after exiting the lockdown. Teamwork and feeling appreciated at work were protective and are targets for developing organizational interventions to mitigate expected poor outcomes among frontline HCWs.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Singapore/epidemiology
11.
Theriogenology ; 177: 1-10, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458733

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine (CQ) could function as a lysosomotropic agent to inhibit the endolysosomal trafficking in the autophagy pathway, and is widely used on malarial, tumor and recently COVID-19. However, the effect of CQ treatment on porcine immature Sertoli cells (iSCs) remains unclear. Here we showed that CQ could reduce iSC viability in a dose-dependent manner. CQ treatment (20 µM) on iSCs for 36h could elevate oxidative stress, damage mitochondrial function and promote apoptosis, which could be partially rescued by melatonin (MT) (10 nM). Transcriptome profiling identified 1611 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (776 up- and 835 down-regulated) (20 µM CQ vs. DMSO), mainly involved in MAPK cascade, cell proliferation/apoptosis, HIF-1, PI3K-Akt and lysosome signaling pathways. In contrast, only 467 (224 up- and 243 down-regulated) DEGs (CQ + MT vs. DMSO) could be found after MT (10 nM) addition, enriched in cell cycle, regulation of apoptotic process, lysosome and reproduction pathways. Therefore, the partial rescue effects of MT on CQ treatment were confirmed by multiple assays (cell viability, ROS level, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and mRNA levels of selected genes). Collectively, CQ treatment could impair porcine iSC viability by deranging the signaling pathways related to apoptosis and autophagy, which could be partially rescued by MT supplementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Swine Diseases , Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/veterinary , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Male , Melatonin/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , SARS-CoV-2 , Sertoli Cells , Swine
12.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 19(4): 463-472, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300549

ABSTRACT

With vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being introduced in countries across the world, policy makers are facing many practical considerations about how best to implement a vaccination programme. The supply of vaccines is insufficient for the global population, so decisions must be made as to which groups are prioritised for any vaccination and when. Furthermore, the aims of vaccination programmes will differ between countries, with some prioritising economic benefits that could stem from the relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions and others seeking simply to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases or deaths. This paper aims to share the experiences and lessons learned from conducting economic evaluations in Singapore and Thailand on hypothetical COVID-19 vaccines to provide a basis for other countries to develop their own contextualised economic evaluations, with particular focus on the key uncertainties, technical challenges, and characteristics that modellers should consider in partnership with key stakeholders. Which vaccines, vaccination strategies, and policy responses are most economically beneficial remains uncertain. It is therefore important for all governments to conduct their own analyses to inform local policy responses to COVID-19, including the implementation of COVID-19 vaccines in both the short and the long run. It is essential that such studies are designed, and ideally conducted, before vaccines are introduced so that policy decisions and implementation procedures are not delayed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy/economics , Immunization Programs/economics , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Thailand
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9545, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217710

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide and led to high disease burden around the world. This study aimed to explore the key parameters of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to assess the effectiveness of interventions to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A susceptible-exposed-infectious-asymptomatic-recovered (SEIAR) model was developed for the assessment. The information of each confirmed case and asymptomatic infection was collected from Ningbo Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to calculate the key parameters of the model in Ningbo City, China. A total of 157 confirmed COVID-19 cases (including 51 imported cases and 106 secondary cases) and 30 asymptomatic infections were reported in Ningbo City. The proportion of asymptomatic infections had an increasing trend. The proportion of elder people in the asymptomatic infections was lower than younger people, and the difference was statistically significant (Fisher's Exact Test, P = 0.034). There were 22 clusters associated with 167 SARS-CoV-2 infections, among which 29 cases were asymptomatic infections, accounting for 17.37%. We found that the secondary attack rate (SAR) of asymptomatic infections was almost the same as that of symptomatic cases, and no statistical significance was observed (χ2 = 0.052, P = 0.819) by Kruskal-Wallis test. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was 1.43, which revealed that the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was moderate. If the interventions had not been strengthened, the duration of the outbreak would have lasted about 16 months with a simulated attack rate of 44.15%. The total attack rate (TAR) and duration of the outbreak would increase along with the increasing delay of intervention. SARS-CoV-2 had moderate transmissibility in Ningbo City, China. The proportion of asymptomatic infections had an increase trend. Asymptomatic infections had the same transmissibility as symptomatic infections. The integrated interventions were implemented at different stages during the outbreak, which turned out to be exceedingly effective in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Young Adult
14.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 9979032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202118

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped and harbor an unusually large (30-32 kb) positive-strand linear RNA genome. Highly pathogenic coronaviruses cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (MERS-CoV) in humans. The coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infects mice and serves as an ideal model of viral pathogenesis, mainly because experiments can be conducted using animal-biosafety level-2 (A-BSL2) containment. Human thymosin beta-4 (Tß4), a 43-residue peptide with an acetylated N-terminus, is widely expressed in human tissues. Tß4 regulates actin polymerization and functions as an anti-inflammatory molecule and an antioxidant as well as a promoter of wound healing and angiogenesis. These activities led us to test whether Tß4 serves to treat coronavirus infections of humans. To test this possibility, here, we established a BALB/c mouse model of coronavirus infection using mouse CoV MHV-A59 to evaluate the potential protective effect of recombinant human Tß4 (rhTß4). Such a system can be employed under A-BSL2 containment instead of A-BSL3 that is required to study coronaviruses infectious for humans. We found that rhTß4 significantly increased the survival rate of mice infected with MHV-A59 through inhibiting virus replication, balancing the host's immune response, alleviating pathological damage, and promoting repair of the liver. These results will serve as the basis for further application of rhTß4 to the treatment of human CoV diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Murine hepatitis virus , Thymosin/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Murine hepatitis virus/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4081, 2020 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717117

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has created a worldwide public health emergency, and there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to control this severe infectious disease. Here, we find that a single vaccination with a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Ad5-nCoV) protect mice completely against mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Additionally, a single vaccination with Ad5-nCoV protects ferrets from wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper respiratory tract. This study suggests that the mucosal vaccination may provide a desirable protective efficacy and this delivery mode is worth further investigation in human clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Female , Genetic Vectors , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics
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