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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(8): 3025-3029, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have confirmed the key mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 enters human cells. It is well established that ACE2 is the receptor that can mark the beginning of the infection. In light of this, the organs that express higher levels of ACE2 are generally considered at higher risk, while those with lower levels should be somehow more protected. This - if related to the scarcity of ace2-expressing cells in the brain - seems to contrast with the presence of a variety of neurological symptoms that follow infection with ace2.  The aim of this work was to analyze ACE2 expression in the human brain, focusing on the choroid plexuses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty brain samples were obtained at autopsy from ten human fetuses and from ten adult subjects. All samples were selected to contain the choroid plexus. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, routinely processed and paraffin embedded. 5-micron sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and immunostained with a commercial anti-human ACE2 rabbit monoclonal antibody at 1:100 dilution. RESULTS: We analyzed 20 samples by immunohistochemistry, and we noted that, as far as fetal samples are concerned, a strong reactivity for ACE2 was detected in the myxoid stroma of the choroid plexuses and in the endothelial cells in fetuses. The complete absence of the ACE2 marker was detected in epithelial cells, neurons and glial cells of the cerebral cortex, both in fetuses and in adults. Whereas a  strong but selective reactivity for ACE2 was also detected in adult choroid plexuses, mainly localized in the endothelial cells of the choroid capillaries. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a strong expression of ACE in the fetal and adult brain choroid plexuses. This new histopathological finding may clarify the susceptibility of the human brain to SARS-COV-2 infection. Our data indicate the choroid plexus as the entry gate of virus for in the human brain; therefore, the entrance of SARS-CoV-2 into the cerebrospinal fluid through the choroid plexuses might represent the mechanism utilized by this coronavirus to cause direct injury to brain cells.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Choroid , Choroid Plexus , Endothelial Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 270-277, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631285

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare new syndrome occurring after the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine immunization. Patients with VITT are characterized by a variable clinical presentation, likewise also the outcome of these patients is very variable. Here we report the lung ultrastructural findings in the course of VITT of a 58-year-old male patient. Alveoli were mainly dilated, irregular in shape, and occupied by a reticular network of fibrin, while interalveolar septa appeared thickened. The proliferation of small capillaries gave rise to plexiform structures and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis-like features. Near the alveoli occupied by a dense fibrin network, the medium-sized arteries showed a modified wall and an intraluminal thrombus. This scenario looks quite similar to that found during COVID-19, where the lungs suffer from the attack of the antigen-antibodies complexes and the virus respectively. In both diseases, the final outcome is a severe inflammation, activation of the haemostatic system and fibrinolysis.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fibrin , Humans , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/immunology , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Middle Aged , Parenchymal Tissue/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology
3.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; 25(24):7997-8003, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1589477

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ongoing Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) showed similar characteristics with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In the most compromised cases, COVID-19 infection leads to death due to severe respiratory complications. COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the primary cause of death in these patients. In the present study, we show an ultrastructural analysis on the lungs of a patient affected by COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Lung specimens obtained at autopsy from a 63-years old patient affected by COVID-19 were fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde. Slices of 300 mu m thickness were dehydrated and dried by Critical Point Drying in CO2. Slices were covered with a conductive gold film approximately 30 nm thick and observed at a Zeiss Sigma 300 SEM FEG in the secondary electron (SE) and backscattered electron (BSE) modes. As case control a lung biopsy from a 60-year-old man was considered. RESULTS: At low power in all COVID-19 lung specimens severe changes in the pulmonary architecture were found, due to the collapse of air spaces. Moreover, alveolar cavities were covered by large membranes. At high power, alveolar membranes showed a fibrillar structure, suggestive of a loose network of fibrin. It has been also found that intra-alveolar red blood cells were frequently present in the alveolar spaces, surrounded by a reticular fibrin network, suggestive for fibrin-hemorrhagic alveolitis. Alveolar changes were constantly associated with pathological features related to the pulmonary vessels. Vascular changes were prominent, including endothelial damage and thrombosis of large pulmonary vessels. Fibrinous microthrombi were frequently detected in the inter-alveolar septal capillaries. In addition, it has been frequently detected capillary proliferation in the alveolar septa with finding suggestive for intussusceptive neo-angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our electron microscopy analysis showed that COVID-19-related lung disease is characterized by a substantial architectural distortion, with the interactions between alveolar and vascular changes. Intra-alveolar hyaline membranes are associated with macro-and micro-thrombotic angiopathy, ending with capillary proliferation. The new blood vessel formation originates from the septa and extends into the surrounding parenchyma. Our findings confirm previous reports on the specificity of the multiple and complex morphological pattern typical, and apparently specific, of COVID-19-related lung disease.

4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(20): 6439-6442, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503076

ABSTRACT

Arterial thromboembolic complications reported in patients with COVID-19 infection suggested that SARS-CoV-2 can trigger atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. While endothelial cells in healthy subjects protect against thrombus formation, after injury they show prothrombotic activity. In addition, it has been hypothesized that "cytokine storm" might stimulate the production of neo-platelets triggering an abnormal "immunothrombosis" responsible for the hypercoagulable state induced in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study is to report a case of severe COVID-19 infection characterized by the occurrence of microthrombosis in the vasa vasorum of the aorta. A 67-year-old male patient, in good health status and without comorbidities, who underwent a severe COVID-19 infection with fatal outcome, showed scattered aortic atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by multiple occlusive micro-thromboses in the vasa vasorum, spread out lymphocytic infiltrates and foci of endotheliitis and endothelial detachment. This case report confirms the previously described thrombotic involvement of vasa vasorum in COVID-19. The occurrence of the synchronous damage involving both the lumen surface (endothelial dysfunction, endotheliitis and endothelial detachment) and the adventitia (inflammation and occlusive thrombosis of vasa vasorum) could be the key points related to the fatal outcome of the SARS-CoV-2 patients. In our opinion, vasa vasorum thrombosis may thus initiate an atherogenic process that could be characterized by a much more rapid development.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Microvessels/pathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology , Vasa Vasorum/pathology , Aged , Aortic Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5904-5912, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Liver injury has been reported in patients with COVID-19. This condition is characterized by severe outcome and could be related with the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to activate cytotoxic T cells. The purpose of this study is to show the histological and scanning electron microscopy features of liver involvement in COVID-19 to characterize the liver changes caused by the activation of multiple molecular pathways following this infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Liver biopsies from 4 patients (3 post-mortems and 1 in vivo) with COVID-19 were analyzed with histology and by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The liver changes showed significant heterogeneity. The first case showed ground glass hepatocytes and scattered fibrin aggregates in the sinusoidal lumen. The second evidenced intra-sinusoidal thrombi. The third was characterized by sinusoidal dilatation, atrophy of hepatocytes, Disse's spaces dilatation and intra-sinusoidal aggregates of fibrin and red blood cells. The fourth case exhibited diffuse fibrin aggregates in the dilated Disse spaces and microthrombi in the sinusoidal lumen. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19-related liver injury, a large spectrum of pathological changes was observed. The most peculiar features were very mild inflammation, intra-sinusoidal changes, including sinusoidal dilatation, thrombotic sinusoiditis and diffuse intra-sinusoidal fibrin deposition. These findings suggested that a thrombotic sinusoiditis followed by a local diffuse intra-vascular (intra-sinusoidal) coagulation could be the typical features of the SARS-CoV-2-related liver injury.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Aged , Autopsy , Biopsy , Erythrocytes/pathology , Fibrin , Hepatocytes/pathology , Humans , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/complications , Young Adult
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5876-5884, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451047

ABSTRACT

The risk stratification of young adults between subjects who will develop a mild form COVID-19 and subjects who will undergo a severe disease remains inaccurate. In this review, we propose that the Barker hypothesis might explain the increased susceptibility to severe forms of COVID-19 in subjects who underwent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this paper evidence indicating an association between a low birth weight and an adult phenotype which might favor a severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection are presented: lower lung functional capacity; increased respiratory morbidity; changes in fibrinogen and Factor VII serum levels and dysregulation of the hemostasis and thrombosis system; acquisition of a pro-thrombotic phenotype; low nephron number, with decreased ability to sustain renal function and increased renal morbidity; heart remodeling, with a less efficient cardiac function; endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for the insurgence of the multiple organ failure; remodeling of arteries, with changes in the elastic properties of the arterial wall, predisposing to the insurgence and progression of atherosclerosis; dysfunction of the innate immune system, a risk factor for immune diseases in adulthood. These data suggest that young and adult subjects born too small (IUGR) or too early (pre-terms) might represent a subgroup of "at risk subjects", more susceptible toward severe forms of COVID-19. Given that LBW may be considered a surrogate of IUGR, this phenotypic marker should be included among the indispensable clinical data collected in every patient presenting with SARS-COV-2 infection, irrespectively of his/her age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Fetal Development , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Fetal Growth Retardation , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 5063-5069, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346861

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new syndrome occurring primarily in healthy young adults, with a female predominance, after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We describe VITT syndrome characterized by severe thrombosis and thrombocytopenia found in our patient, with fatal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old man, after 13 days from the first administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca), presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomitus. Laboratory tests revealed a severe thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen serum levels and marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The patient quickly developed a multiple organ failure, till death, three days after the hospital admission. RESULTS: At histology, in the lungs, interalveolar septa appeared thickened with microthrombi in the capillaries and veins. Interalveolar septa appeared thickened and showed vascular proliferation. Thrombi were detected in the capillaries of glomerular tufts. In the hearth, thrombi were observed in veins and capillaries. In the liver, voluminous fibrin thrombi were diffusely observed in the branches of the portal vein. Microthrombi were also found in the vasa vasorum of the wall of abdominal aorta. In the brain, microthrombi were observed in the capillaries of the choroid plexuses. Diffuse hemorrhagic necrosis was observed in the intestinal wall with marked congestion of the venous vessels. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, the majority of data necessary for a VITT final diagnosis were present: thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in pulmonary, portal, hepatic, renal and mesenteric veins, associated with a marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The finding of cerebral thrombosis in choroid plexuses, is a new finding in VITT. These features are suggestive for a very aggressive form of VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Aorta/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Choroid Plexus/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ileum/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Thrombosis/blood
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(13): 4639-4643, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by quantitative and qualitative changes in surfactant composition, leading to surfactant dysregulation with alveolar collapse and acute respiratory hypoxic failure. Recently, surfactant has been hypothesized to play a relevant role in COVID-19, representing a strong defender against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of our work was the study of immunohistochemical surfactant expression in the lungs of patients died following SARS-CoV-2 ARDS, in order to shed light on a possible therapeutic surfactant administration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated four patients who died due to ARDS following SARS-COV-2 infection and four patients submitted to lung biopsy, in the absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In all 8 cases, lung specimens were immunostained with anti-surfactant protein A (SP-A) and B (SP-B). RESULTS: In control subjects, reactivity for SP-B was restricted to type II alveolar cells. Immunostaining for SP-A was observed on the surface of alveolar spaces. In the COVID-19 positive lungs, immunoreactivity for SP-B was similar to that observed in control lungs; SP-A was strongly expressed along the alveolar wall. Moreover, dense aggregates of SP-A positive material were observed in the alveolar spaces. CONCLUSIONS: Our immunohistochemical data show the dysregulation of surfactant production in COVID-19 patients, particularly regarding SP-A expression. The increased presence of SP-A in condensed masses inside alveolar spaces could invalidate the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment with exogenous surfactant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Protein Precursors/analysis , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/analysis , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Protein Precursors/genetics , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/genetics , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/genetics , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3886-3897, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Platelets, blood coagulation along with fibrinolysis are greatly involved in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases induced by bacteria, parasites and virus. This phenomenon is not surprising since both the innate immunity and the hemostatic systems are two ancestral mechanisms which closely cooperate favoring host's defense against foreign invaders. However, the excessive response of these systems may be dangerous for the host itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched and retrieved the articles, using the following electronic database: MedLine and Embase. We limited our search to articles published in English, but no restrictions in terms of article type, publication year, and geography were adopted. RESULTS: The hemostatic phenotype of the infectious diseases is variable depending on the points of attack of the different involved pathogens. Infectious diseases which show a prothrombotic phenotype are bacterial sepsis, SARS-CoV-2 and malaria. However, among the bacterial sepsis, Yersinia Pestis is characterized by a profibrinolytic behavior. On the contrary, the hemorrhagic fevers, due to Dengue and Ebola virus, mainly exploit the activation of fibrinolysis secondary to a huge endothelial damage which can release a large amount of t-PA in the early phase of the diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis are greatly activated based on the strategy of the different infectious agents which exploit the excess of response of both systems to achieve the greatest possible virulence.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/pathology , Fibrinolysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Erythrocytes/cytology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Humans , Monocytes/cytology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Viruses/pathogenicity
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3772-3790, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264762

ABSTRACT

Multiple epidemiological studies have suggested that industrialization and progressive urbanization should be considered one of the main factors responsible for the rising of atherosclerosis in the developing world. In this scenario, the role of trace metals in the insurgence and progression of atherosclerosis has not been clarified yet. In this paper, the specific role of selected trace elements (magnesium, zinc, selenium, iron, copper, phosphorus, and calcium) is described by focusing on the atherosclerotic prevention and pathogenesis plaque. For each element, the following data are reported: daily intake, serum levels, intra/extracellular distribution, major roles in physiology, main effects of high and low levels, specific roles in atherosclerosis, possible interactions with other trace elements, and possible influences on plaque development. For each trace element, the correlations between its levels and clinical severity and outcome of COVID-19 are discussed. Moreover, the role of matrix metalloproteinases, a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, as a new medical therapeutical approach to atherosclerosis is discussed. Data suggest that trace element status may influence both atherosclerosis insurgence and plaque evolution toward a stable or an unstable status. However, significant variability in the action of these traces is evident: some - including magnesium, zinc, and selenium - may have a protective role, whereas others, including iron and copper, probably have a multi-faceted and more complex role in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic plaque. Finally, calcium and phosphorus are implicated in the calcification of atherosclerotic plaques and in the progression of the plaque toward rupture and severe clinical complications. In particular, the role of calcium is debated. Focusing on the COVID-19 pandemia, optimized magnesium and zinc levels are indicated as important protective tools against a severe clinical course of the disease, often related to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to cause a systemic inflammatory response, able to transform a stable plaque into an unstable one, with severe clinical complications.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/pathology , Trace Elements/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calcium/blood , Calcium/metabolism , Copper/blood , Copper/metabolism , Humans , Iron/blood , Iron/metabolism , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Phosphorus/blood , Phosphorus/metabolism , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selenium/blood , Selenium/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Trace Elements/blood , Zinc/blood , Zinc/metabolism
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(9): 3594-3606, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with 2019-nCoV infection have a high risk to develop venous thrombotic events. Several guidelines recommend the use of either unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparins in preventing thrombotic events in these patients. However, results from clinical studies, so far published, reached controversial conclusions on heparin efficacy in this kind of patients since the incidence of venous thromboembolism remains high despite prophylaxis. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties of heparins and their efficacy and safety in SARS-CoV-2 medical ward-patients. Moreover, anatomical findings and ongoing trials are also reported. Finally, this narrative review tries to explain why heparins fail to prevent venous thrombosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched for the most relevant published studies on heparins and 2019-nCoV infected patients using the MEDLINE electronic database in the period between January and December 2020. Articles were preliminarily defined as eligible if they: a) were in English language, b) enrolled 250 or more medical ward-patients and 100 or more ICU-patients, c) reported results on patients treated with heparins in a percentage of at least 70% and d) performed an objectively confirmed diagnosis of VTE. RESULTS: Data from medium to large scientific studies show that the incidence of venous thrombotic events in medical ward-patients with SARS-CoV-2 vary between 0% and 8.3%, while this rate is higher, from 6.2% to 49%, in Intensive Care Unit-patients. However, heparins reduce the mortality rate in these patients of about 50%. Histological findings show that thrombosis could affect capillaries, main and small-mid-sized vessels, and it is associated with diffuse alveolar damage. CONCLUSIONS: Heparins have anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, which may be of help in reducing mortality in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Failure of heparins at prophylactic dosages in preventing VTE, especially in ICU-patients, could be due to the severity of the disease. Data on the use of heparins in an early phase of the 2019-nCoV infection are still lacking.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Mortality/trends , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/immunology
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(4): 2146-2151, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19, the newly emerging infectious disease, has been associated with acute liver injury, often related to progression to severe pneumonia. The association between moderate-severe liver injury and more severe clinical course of COVID-19 has suggested that liver injury is prevalent in severe than in mild cases of COVID-19, while no difference in liver involvement has been reported between survivors and non-survivors. The spectrum of liver involvement during COVID-19 ranges from an asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes to severe hepatitis. Only rarely, cases with acute hepatitis have been reported in the absence of respiratory symptoms. Both epithelial and biliary cells possess the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors that SARS-CoV-2 uses to be internalized. However, to our knowledge, no ultrastructural identification of the virus in liver cells has been reported to date. Here we provide evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in the liver of two patients, a 34-year-old woman and a 60-year-old man with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated two patients with COVID-19 showing several virions within cytoplasmic vacuoles of cholangiocytes and in endothelial cells of hepatic sinusoids. In both patients, we performed histological and ultrastructural examinations by liver biopsy. After two months, both patients were free of symptoms, and the SARS-CoV-2 infection had resolved. RESULTS: Liver biopsy histological and ultrastructural examination showed liver injury and several virions within cytoplasmic vacuoles of cholangiocytes and in endothelial cells of hepatic sinusoids. CONCLUSIONS: Although most studies in COVID-19 have been focused on the lungs, recently, cholestatic liver pathology has been introduced in the spectrum of pathological changes related to COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, those presented in this paper are the first images of hepatic SARS-CoV-2 infected liver cells. Our findings suggest a role for cholangiocytes and biliary structures in the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Virion/isolation & purification
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12609-12622, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In human pathology, SARS-CoV-2 utilizes multiple molecular pathways to determine structural and biochemical changes within the different organs and cell types. The clinical picture of patients with COVID-19 is characterized by a very large spectrum. The reason for this variability has not been clarified yet, causing the inability to make a prognosis on the evolution of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed search was performed focusing on the role of ACE 2 receptors in allowing the viral entry into cells, the role of ACE 2 downregulation in triggering the tissue pathology or in accelerating previous disease states, the role of increased levels of Angiotensin II in determining endothelial dysfunction and the enhanced vascular permeability, the role of the dysregulation of the renin angiotensin system in COVID-19 and the role of cytokine storm. RESULTS: The pathological changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in the different organs, the correlations between the single cell types targeted by the virus in the different human organs and the clinical consequences, COVID-19 chronic pathologies in liver fibrosis, cardiac fibrosis and atrial arrhythmias, glomerulosclerosis and pulmonary fibrosis, due to the systemic fibroblast activation induced by angiotensin II are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The main pathways involved showed different pathological changes in multiple tissues and the different clinical presentations. Even if ACE2 is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and the main entry point into cells for the virus, ACE2 expression does not always explain the observed marked inter-individual variability in clinical presentation and outcome, evidencing the complexity of this disorder. The proper interpretation of the growing data available might allow to better classifying COVID-19 in human pathology.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Angiotensin I/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Capillary Permeability , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , Fibrosis , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Virus Internalization
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