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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268865, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933294

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several Public Health Services and general practitioners in the Netherlands observed an increase in scabies in the Netherlands. Since individual cases of scabies are not notifiable in the Netherlands, the epidemiological situation is mostly unknown. To investigate the scabies incidence in the Netherlands, we described the epidemiology of scabies between 2011 and 2021. METHODS: Two national data sources were analysed descriptively. One data source obtained incidence data of scabies (per 1,000 persons) of persons consulting in primary care from 2011-2020. The other data source captured the number of prescribed scabicides in the Netherlands from 2011-2021. To describe the correlation between the incidence of diagnoses and the number of dispensations between 2011 and 2020, we calculated a correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The incidence of reported scabies has increased by more than threefold the last decade (2011-2020), mainly affecting adolescents and (young) adults. This was also clearly reflected in the fivefold increase in dispensations of scabicide medication during 2011-2021. The incidence and dispensations were at an all-time high in 2021. We found a strong correlation between the reported incidence and the number of dispensations between 2011 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: More awareness on early diagnosis, proper treatment and treatment of close contacts is needed.


Subject(s)
Acaricides , General Practitioners , Scabies , Acaricides/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Incidence , Netherlands/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Scabies/epidemiology
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 208, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Public Health Services in the Rotterdam region, the Netherlands, observed a substantial decrease of non-COVID-19 notifiable infectious diseases and institutional outbreaks during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic. We describe this change from mid-March to mid-October 2020 by comparing with the pre-COVID-19 situation. METHODS: All cases of notifiable diseases and institutional outbreaks reported to the Public Health Services Rotterdam-Rijnmond between 1st January and mid-October 2020 were included. Seven-day moving averages and cumulative cases were plotted against time and compared to those of 2017-2019. Additionally, Google mobility transit data of the region were plotted, as proxy for social distancing. RESULTS: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, and travel-related notifiable diseases were reported 65% less often during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic than in the same weeks in 2017-2019. Reports of institutional outbreaks were also lower after the initially imposed social distancing measures; however, the numbers rebounded when measures were partially lifted. CONCLUSIONS: Interpersonal distancing and hygiene measures imposed nationally against COVID-19 were in place between mid-March and mid-October, which most likely reduced transmission of other infectious diseases, and may thus have resulted in lower notifications of infectious diseases and outbreaks. This phenomenon opens future study options considering the effect of local outbreak control measures on a wide range of non-COVID-19 diseases. Targeted, tailored, appropriate and acceptable hygiene and distancing measures, specifically for vulnerable groups and institutions, should be devised and their effect investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
4.
Euro Surveill ; 27(8)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714940

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assays are more sensitive than rapid antigen detection assays (RDT) and can detect viral RNA even after an individual is no longer infectious. RDT can reduce the time to test and the results might better correlate with infectiousness.AimWe assessed the ability of five RDT to identify infectious COVID-19 cases and systematically recorded the turnaround time of RT-PCR testing.MethodsSensitivity of RDT was determined using a serially diluted SARS-CoV-2 stock with known viral RNA concentration. The probability of detecting infectious virus at a given viral load was calculated using logistic regression of viral RNA concentration and matched culture results of 78 specimens from randomly selected non-hospitalised cases. The probability of each RDT to detect infectious cases was calculated as the sum of the projected probabilities for viral isolation success for every viral RNA load found at the time of diagnosis in 1,739 confirmed non-hospitalised COVID-19 cases.ResultsThe distribution of quantification cycle values and estimated RNA loads for patients reporting to drive-through testing was skewed to high RNA loads. With the most sensitive RDT (Abbott and SD Biosensor), 97.30% (range: 88.65-99.77) of infectious individuals would be detected. This decreased to 92.73% (range: 60.30-99.77) for Coris BioConcept and GenBody, and 75.53% (range: 17.55-99.77) for RapiGEN. Only 32.9% of RT-PCR results were available on the same day as specimen collection.ConclusionThe most sensitive RDT detected infectious COVID-19 cases with high sensitivity and may considerably improve containment through more rapid isolation and contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323417

ABSTRACT

Background: An outbreak of COVID-19 in a nursing home in the Netherlands, following an on-site church service held on March 8, 2020, triggered an investigation to unravel sources and chain(s) of transmission.MethodsEpidemiological data were collected from registries and through a questionnaire among church visitors. Symptomatic residents and healthcare workers (HCWs) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS). Sequences from a selection of people from the same area were included as community reference.ResultsAfter the church service, 30 of 39 visitors (77%) developed symptoms;14 were tested and were positive for COVID-19 (11 residents and 3 non-residents). In the following five weeks, 62 of 300 residents (21%) and 30 of 640 HCWs (5%) tested positive for COVID-19;21 of 62 residents (34%) died. The outbreak was controlled through a cascade of measures. WGS of samples from residents and HCWs identified a diversity of sequence types, grouped into eight clusters. Seven resident church visitors all were infected with distinct viruses, four of which belonged to two larger clusters in the nursing home.ConclusionsAlthough initial investigation suggested the church service as source of the outbreak, detailed analysis showed a more complex picture, most consistent with widespread regional circulation of the virus in the weeks before the outbreak, and multiple introductions into the nursing home before the visitor ban. The findings underscore the importance of careful outbreak investigations to understand SARS-CoV-2 transmission to develop evidence-based mitigation measures.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295246

ABSTRACT

Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-2021, monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater has rapidly evolved into a supplementary surveillance instrument for public health. Short term trends (2 weeks) are used as a basis for policy and decision making on measures for dealing with the pandemic. Normalization is required to account for the varying dilution rates of the domestic wastewater, that contains the shedded virus RNA. The dilution rate varies due to runoff, industrial discharges and extraneous waters. Three normalization methods using flow, conductivity and CrAssphage, have been investigated on 9 monitoring locations between Sep 2020 and Aug 2021, rendering 1071 24-hour flow-proportional samples. In addition, 221 stool samples have been analyzed to determine the daily CrAssphage load per person. Results show that flow normalization supported by a quality check using conductivity monitoring is the advocated normalization method in case flow monitoring is or can be made available. Although Crassphage shedding rates per person vary greatly, the CrAssphage loads were very consistent over time and space and direct CrAssphage based normalization can be applied reliably for populations of 5600 and above.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293349

ABSTRACT

Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-2021, monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater has rapidly evolved into a supplementary surveillance instrument for public health. Short term trends (2 weeks) are used as a basis for policy and decision making on measures for dealing with the pandemic. Normalization is required to account for the varying dilution rates of the domestic wastewater, that contains the shedded virus RNA. The dilution rate varies due to runoff, industrial discharges and extraneous waters. Three normalization methods using flow, conductivity and CrAssphage, have been investigated on 9 monitoring locations between Sep 2020 and Aug 2021, rendering 1071 24-hour flow-proportional samples. In addition, 221 stool samples have been analyzed to determine the daily CrAssphage load per person. Results show that flow normalization supported by a quality check using conductivity monitoring is the advocated normalization method in case flow monitoring is or can be made available. Although Crassphage shedding rates per person vary greatly, the CrAssphage loads were very consistent over time and space and direct CrAssphage based normalization can be applied reliably for populations of 5600 and above.

8.
Euro Surveill ; 26(40)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463432

ABSTRACT

We evaluated routine testing with SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant-specific RT-PCR in regional hospital laboratories in addition to centralised national genomic surveillance in the Netherlands during June and July 2021. The increase of the Delta variant detected by RT-PCR correlated well with data from genomic surveillance and was available ca 2 weeks earlier. This rapid identification of the relative abundance and increase of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern may have important benefits for implementation of local public health measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genomics , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 2): S163-S169, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a nursing home in the Netherlands, following an on-site church service held on 8 March 2020, triggered an investigation to unravel sources and chain(s) of transmission. METHODS: Epidemiological data were collected from registries and through a questionnaire among church attendees. Symptomatic residents and healthcare workers (HCWs) were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS). Sequences from a selection of people from the same area were included as community reference. RESULTS: After the church service, 30 of 39 attendees (77%) developed symptoms; 14 (11 residents and 3 nonresidents) were tested and were positive for COVID-19. In the following 5 weeks, 62 of 300 residents (21%) and 30 of 640 HCWs (5%) tested positive for COVID-19; 21 of 62 residents (34%) died. The outbreak was controlled through a cascade of measures. WGS of samples from residents and HCWs identified a diversity of sequence types, grouped into 8 clusters. Seven resident church attendees all were infected with distinct viruses, 4 of which belonged to 2 larger clusters in the nursing home. CONCLUSIONS: Although initial investigation suggested the church service as the source of the outbreak, detailed analysis showed a more complex picture, most consistent with widespread regional circulation of the virus in the weeks before the outbreak, and multiple introductions into the nursing home before the visitor ban. The findings underscore the importance of careful outbreak investigations to understand SARS-CoV-2 transmission to develop evidence-based mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Netherlands , Nursing Homes
10.
Int Marit Health ; 72(2): 87-92, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People on ships are at high risk for outbreaks of infectious diseases including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A rapid and well-coordinated response is important to curb transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We studied an outbreak on an industrial ship to improve outbreak control for ships and coordination between participating harbour partners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Public Health Service (PHS) Rotterdam-Rijnmond performed an epidemiological investigation during the outbreak of COVID-19 among 77 seafarers on a ship in their port. The captain was interviewed about ship details and his experiences during the outbreak. The seafarers were asked to fill in questionnaires about symptoms suspicious of COVID-19 and date of symptom onset. Information about stakeholders involved in outbreak control was registered. RESULTS: The captain first contacted PHS about probable cases on March 31st 2020 via a physician ashore. One crewmember was hospitalised on April 8th and another died unexpectedly aboard on April 10th. Questionnaires distributed mid-April to the 75 remaining seafarers showed that 38 of 60 responders (63%) had had suspicious symptoms between February 15th and April 13th. None of them were tested but a total of 8 other crewmembers tested positive for COVID-19 after leaving the ship, including the hospitalised crewmember and the one who died aboard. On May 5th, the last case left isolation and the quarantine ended. Many different stakeholders were involved in the outbreak response and responsibilities were not always fully clear beforehand, causing coordination issues. CONCLUSIONS: Testing crew with COVID-19 symptoms underpins control measures and clarifies communication between stakeholders. Building a network beforehand to develop outbreak guidelines tailored to ships and local circumstances is essential to control future outbreaks on ships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Quarantine , Ships , Adult , Humans , Naval Medicine/methods , Netherlands , Retrospective Studies , Travel
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 24-32, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272475

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To obtain insight into SARS-CoV-2 clustering and transmission routes during outbreaks in the predominantly migrant workforce of the fruit and vegetable packaging industry of South Holland, the Netherlands, May to July 2020. DESIGN: This mixed-methods study applied direct observation and interviews, epidemiologic investigation, source and contact data analysis and whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: We detected 46 SARS-CoV-2 cases and 4 outbreaks with a proportional representation of labour migrant and native workers in 6 unrelated facilities. Complete viral genome sequences revealed at least 3 clusters of native workers and labour migrants, 2 within and 1 between facilities. On-site inspections found adequate implementation of preventative measures to which both native workers and labour migrants showed suboptimal adherence. Being a labour migrant was associated with living in shared housing, but not with more contacts or different sources. CONCLUSIONS: The fruit and vegetable packaging industry gave the impression of sufficient preparedness and control. Suboptimal adherence to the facilities' preventative guidelines could have facilitated work floor transmission. Community and household transmission are likely to have contributed to outbreaks. We encourage further research into risk factors for transmission in labour migrants and application of these insights into targeted public health policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Cluster Analysis , Disease Outbreaks , Fruit , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
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